1. What is situated on top of the kidney and secretes hormones?
    Adrenal Glands
  2. What controls kidney excretion of potassium and sodium retention by regulating the salt and water balance?
  3. Glucocorticoids regulate what?
    Carbohydrate Metabolism
  4. Androgens (sex hormones) do what?
    • 1. masculinize the body
    • 2. retain amino acids
    • 3. enhance protein synthesis
  5. The adrenal medulla secretes:
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
  6. Hormonal secretions of the pituitary gland are controlled by what?
  7. hypothalamus
  8. The pituitary gland sits where?
    Within Sella Turcica
  9. Growth Hormone does what?
    Promotes body growth and tissue development
  10. Oxytocin is secreted by the:
    Posterior Pituitary Gland
  11. Oxytocin causes contractions of what?
    smooth muscle
  12. Thyroxine does what?
    stimulates cellular metabolism in response to the body's need for increased energy production
  13. What is a butterfly-shaped gland consisting of two lobes?
    Thyroid Gland
  14. Which glands are responsible for controlling blood calcium & phosphate levels?
    Parathyroid gland
  15. What common endocrine disorder is it when beta cells in the islets of langerhans fail to secrete insulin?
    Diabetes Mellitus
  16. Nontumorous hyperfunction is the most often the cause of what?
    Cushing's syndrome
  17. Elevated levels of androgens cause accelerated skeletal maturation along with premature epiphyseal fusion in which syndrome?
  18. Pheochromocytomas ca be diagnosed how?
    biochemical tests (imaging aids in confimation-not diagnosis)
  19. About 50% of __________ have calcifications (which distinguish them from Wilm's tumor)
  20. Gigantism and Acromegaly are examples of what?
  21. What causes profound generalized disturbances in bone growth and maturation?
  22. Severe polyuria leads to massive dilation of renal pelves, calyces and ureters in what disease?
    Diabetes Insipidus
  23. Modality of choice to determine function of thyroid for palpable and nonpalpable nodules is:
    Nuc Med
  24. A solid mass with a consistent echogenicity. often demonstrating a thick smooth periphery of a capsule is a what?
    Benign Thyroid Adenoma
  25. Three Types of Thyroid Carcinoma's
    • papillary
    • follicular
    • medullary
  26. Three categories of hyperparathyroidism:
    • primary
    • secondary
    • tertiary
  27. CT is modality of choice for ______ because of the radiographic changes produced in multiple systems
    Cushing's syndrome
  28. In cases of _________ the role of imaging is to demonstrate the location of the ademoma (which is difficult to detect during surgery)
  29. Excessive administration of steriods is the most common cause of:
  30. adrenal carcniomas are best demonstrated on:
    CT (as a large irregular edged mass)
  31. Arterial injections of iodinated contrast agents cause a sharp elevation in blood pressure for patients with:
  32. Thickened bones of the skull, enlarged paranasal sinuses, and lengthened mandible are all suggestive of:
  33. The gland that controls the level of secretion of gonadal and thyroid hormones and the production of GH is What?
    Pituitary Gland
  34. MRI is the modality of choice to demonstrate a pituitary tumor because of the:
    mulitplanar imaging abilities, tumor size and location
  35. Uniform radioactivity throughout the thyroid that demonstrates diffuse enlargement is suggestive of:
    Graves' disease
  36. In severe cases of Graves' disease the patient may have
    generalized cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion
  37. An enlargement of the thyroid gland that is not inflammatory or neoplastic is called?
    A goiter
  38. The most common type of thyroid carcinoma is
  39. Spreading to regional lymph nodes, _______ is slow growing and cystic.
    papillary carcinoma
  40. The thyroid carcinoma that closely mimics normal thyroid tissue is the __________.
  41. Common manifestations of diabetes mellitus are
    polyuria, polyspipsia, and glycosuria
  42. butterfly-shaped located in neck
    thyroid gland
  43. What controls sodium retention and potassium secretion?
  44. What are the 4 tiny glands on the superior and inferior posterior aspects of teh thyroid gland
    parathyroid glands
  45. What increases the rate of absorption of water and electrolytes by renal tubules?
  46. What is the natural iodine-containing substance that stimulates cellular metabolism?
  47. What produces these 2 hormones- vasopressin and oxytocin?
    posterior lobe of pituitary gland
  48. What promotes growth and development of all parts of the body?
    Growth hormone
  49. What does glucocorticoid do?
    regulates carbohydrate metabolism
  50. Luteinizing hormone does what?
    regulation of menstrual cycle and secretion of sex hormones (male & female)
  51. parathormone is responsible for
    controlling calcium and phosphate blood levels
  52. Anterior lobe of pituitary secretes what?
    a group of hormones affecting the sex organs of gonads
  53. androgens are what?
    sex hormones
  54. what stimulates heart activity and raises blood pressure?
  55. What is the master gland which is controlled by the hypothalamus?
    pituitary gland
  56. The hormone regulating carbohydrate metabolism are
  57. Generalized enlargement of teh adrenal glands is best demonstrated by
    CT-appears as thickened wings
  58. An abnormal loss of potassium in the urine can be used by an
    overproduction of mineralocorticoid hormones
  59. The adrenal gland producing excessive androgenic active hormones cause
    adrenogenital syndrome
  60. The most common cause of hypoadrenalism is
    steroid administration
  61. Lymphatic and hepatic metastasis is common when ________ presents clincally because of rapid growth (usualy necrotic).
    adrenal carcinoma
  62. The most common carcinomas to metastasize to the adrenal gland are
    lung and breast cancers
  63. The tumor that produces an extensive amount of vasopressor substances is a
  64. Calcifications in a _____________ have a fine granular or stippled appearance.
  65. The modality of choice to diagnose a neuroblastoma is
  66. The posterior lobe of hte pituitary gland produces
    vasopressin and oxytocin
  67. Hyperpituitarism after bone growth stops causes
  68. Radiographers need to be cautious of complications of Cushing's syndrome, such as
    spontaneous fractures
  69. Which two hormones are known as fight or flight
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  70. The modality that demonstrates function of the thyroid gland the best is
  71. Graves' disease results from an excessive production of thyroid hormone known as
  72. Cretinism, which usually results in short stature, is considered the result of an abnormality of an insuffiicent synthesis of thyroid hormone known as
  73. Thyroid adenomas appear "hot" or "cold" on NM scans depending on their:
    functional capacity
  74. The thyroid carcinoma peaking in young adulthood and again in the 3rd and 5th decades and that is slow growing is....
    papillary carcinoma
  75. Diabetes Mellitus is a result of the
    pancreas failing to secrete insulin
  76. Sustained muscular contraction due to a lack of parathormone is
  77. The parathyroid disease process often attributed to chronic renal failure is
    secondary hyperparathyroidism
  78. On ultrasound, these tumors generally appear as solid hypoechoic masses and may contain microcalcifications; they are
    papillary carcinomas
  79. What organ in the body is responsible for the release of insulin?
  80. What organ in the body is responsible for the release of glucagon?
  81. The _________ glands secrete several types of steroid hormones and lie above each kidney.
  82. What hormone has the ability to constrict some blood vessels while dilating others to shunt blood to activate muscles where oxgen and nutrients are needed?
  83. Enlargement of the adrenal glands is best demonstrated by what diagnostic modality?
  84. What pathologic condition is characterized by obesity of the trunk of the body, a fat pad behind the shoulders, and a moon-shaped face?
    Cushing's syndrome
  85. One complication of Cushing's syndrome that radiographers must be cautious of is ________.
    spontaneous fractures
  86. Excessive administration of ________ is the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency.
  87. The second most common malignancy in children is:
  88. The ________ controls the hormone secretion of the pituitary gland.
  89. Enlargement of the hands, feet, and face is characteristic of what pathologic reaction?
  90. A pea-size gland suspended from the base of the brain, sometimes referred to as the master gland, is called the ___________.
  91. What is the name for the butterfly-shaped gland located at the level of the larynx?
  92. Thyroid tissue is best demonstrated by what imaging modality?
    Radionuclide imaging
  93. Insufficient synthesis of thyroid hormone can lead to what pathologic condition?
  94. What is the name for an enlargement of the thyroid gland that does not result from an inflammatory or neoplastic process?
  95. There is a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer in people who receive _________.
    neck radiation in childhood
  96. If beta cells in the islets of Langerhans fail to secrete insulin, what pathologic condition results?
  97. A diabetic patient who receives insulin before reporting to the radiology department for a UGI should be monitored by the radiographer for any signs of developing ______________.
    hypoglycemic shock
  98. The most common complication and leading cause of death in diabetic patients is __________.
    renal disease
Card Set
Endocrine Chapter-Workbook