ENG 405 Linguistics

  1. Prescriptive grammar
    Grammar rules, invented by experts, grammarians not always followed
  2. Descriptive Grammar
    What native speakers know about their language
  3. Language is arbitrary
    no sound meaning connection except for onomatopoeic
  4. Creative aspect of language use
    • Every utterance and combination is new and situational
    • -difference between human and animal communication
  5. Universal Grammar
    Noam Chomsky - universal properties of all languages -language is innate
  6. Arguements for universal grammar
    • -children are able to acquire language quickly and easily
    • -acquisition errors, overgeneralizing rules (brought, bringed)
    • -creative aspect
  7. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    • Linguistic determination- We are at the mercy of our language-it limits the way we interpret and think about the world
    • (Light- Linguistic relativism - languages shapes the way we think)
    • -but we can stil describe things we don't have words for
  8. Lesion
    An area of sever damage to the brain, caused by a stroke or trauma
  9. Aphasia
    A language deficit caused by damage to the brain.
  10. Broca's Area
    • Nonfluent aphasia, agrammatism-halting speech, short utterances
    • -lack of function words/morphemes (telegraphic speech)
    • Comprehension of language but may be confused by function words
    • (syntactic matters)
  11. Wernicke's aphasia
    • Fluent aphasia - can produce normally intoned connected speech with function words
    • -difficulty understanding content words
    • - some words may be nonsense or not fit the context
    • (Lexical matters)
  12. Transcortical sensory aphasia
    repetition, no comprehension
  13. Anomic aphasia
    damage in the parietal area, inability to name things, find words
  14. Dichotic listening
    • linguistic stimuli to right ear
    • nonverbal stimuli to left
    • (contralateralization)
  15. Correlation between language and intelligence
    One can be fluent and cognitively impaired (savants)
  16. Critical period
    • birth to 9 years
    • -late exposure to language alters fundamental organization of the brain
    • - children exposed later do not fully gain liguistic fluency
  17. Evolution of language
    • earliest written records 6,000 years ago
    • Monogenetic theory- all languages from same source
    • -language is imitative, emotional cries of nature
    • etc
  18. Morpheme
    • the smallest unit of sound and meaning
    • runn-ing cat-s black-ens runn-er

    • words like car, true, thank are monomorphemic
    • leftover cannot be split up into morphemes- loses meaning
  19. Content morphems vs function morphemes
    • content - kick, boy, yellow
    • function- bits of syntactic structure- prepositions, grammatical notions -ed or-s
  20. Bound vs free morphemes
    • bound- cannot stand on their own, must be affixed
    • free- can stand alone
  21. Derivational and Inflectional affixes
    • derivational - change the meaning or part of speech (un-, ness)
    • inflectional - create a different form of the same word (plural -s past tense -ed)
  22. Types of bound morphemes
    affixes, suffixes, prefixes and in other languages circumfixes and infixes
  23. Allomorphs
    • the same meaning unit has more than one sound
    • form
    • ox / oxen
    • but not box / boxen
    • irregular allomorphs must be memorized
Card Set
ENG 405 Linguistics
linguistics, UNH, language