Sociology Exam 2 (NEW)

  1. Culture
    All that human beings learn to do, to use, to produce, to know, and to believe as they grow to maturity and live out their lives.
  2. Ethnocentrism
    The tendency to judge other cultures in terms of one's own customs and values.
  3. Culture Shock
    The reaction people may have when encountering cultural traditions different from their own.
  4. Cultural Relativism
    The position that social scientists doing cross-cultural research should view and analyze behaviors and customs within the cultural context in which they occur.
  5. Cultural Lag
    A situation that develops when new patterns of behavior conflict with traditional values. Can occur when technological change is more rapid than are changes in norms and values..
  6. Material Culture
    All the things human beings make and use.
  7. Non material culture
    The totality of knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules for appropriate behavior that specifies how a people should interact and how they solve their problems.
  8. Real Norms
    Norms that allow for differences in individual behavior. Real norms specify how people actually behave, not how they should behave under ideal circumstances.
  9. Ideal norms
    expectations of what people should do under perfect conditions. The norm that marriage will last "until death do us part" is an ideal norm in American society.
  10. Folkways
    Norms that permit a rather wide degree of individual interpretation as long as certain limits are not overstepped.
  11. Mores
    Strongly held normas that usually have a moral connotation and are based on the central values of the culture.
  12. Laws
    Formal rules adopted by a society's political authority.
  13. Taboos
    A sacred prohibition against touching, mentioning, or looking at certain objects, acts, or people.
  14. Subcultures
    The distinctive lifestyles, values, norms, and beliefs of certain segments of the population within a society.
  15. Social identities
    The statuses that define an individual.
  16. Personality
    The patterns of behavior and ways of thinking and feeling that are destinctive for each individual.
  17. Conditioning
    The molding of behavior through repeated experiences that link a desired reaction with a particular object or event.
  18. Socialization
    The long and complicated processes of social interactions through which a child learns the intellectual, physical, and social skills needed to function as a member of society.
  19. Resocialization
    An important aspect of adult socialization that involves bein gexposed to ideas or values that conflict with what was learned in childhood.
  20. Concept of Self
    An awareness of the existence, appearance, and boundaries of one's own body.
  21. Cooley's Looking Glass Self.
    The process through which we develop a sense of self.
  22. Id
    Consists of the unconscious drives or instincts that Freud believed every human inherits.
  23. Ego
    Tries to mediate in the conflict between the id and superego.
  24. Superego
    Consists of society's norms and values, learned in the course of a person's socialization, tha toften conflict with the id's impulses.
  25. Me
    The portion of the self that is made up of those things learned through the socialization process from the family, school, peers and so on.
  26. I
    The portion of the self that wishes to have free expression, to be active, and to be spontaneous.
  27. Family
    First introduction to society
  28. School
    Aids in socialization
  29. Peer Groups
    Greatest say in lifestyle issues
  30. Mass media
    Long term exposure is a causal factor behind 1/2 of homicides in the US
  31. Lombroso and Deviance
    Criminals are evolutionary throwbacks whose behavior is more apelike than human.
  32. Deviance
    Behavior that fails to conform to the rules or norms fo the group in which it occurs.
  33. Functions of Deviance
    Teaches normal behavior by provoding examples of rule violations
  34. Tolerance of deviant behavior
    Prevents more serious instances of nonconformity
  35. Dysfunctions of Deviance
    • It is a threat to the social order because it makes social life unpredictable
    • It causes confusion about the norms and values of that society.
  36. Internal means of Control
    A group's moral code becomes internalized and becomes part of each individual's personal code of conduct that operates even in the absence of reactions by others
  37. External Means of Control
    The ways in which others respond to a person's behavior that channel his or her behavior along culturally approved lines.
  38. Types of Sanctions
    • Positive informal
    • Positive formal
    • Negative informal
    • Negative formal
  39. Innovators
    Accept the culturally validated goal of success but find deviant ways of reaching it.
  40. Ritualists
    Reject the importance o fsuccess once they realize they will never achieve it.
  41. Retreatists
    Pull back from society
  42. Rebels
    Reject the goals of what to them is an unfair social order and the means of achieving them
  43. Control theory
    People are free to violate norms if they lack intimiate attachments
  44. labeling theory
    Importance of violated norms, social identity of the person who violates them, social context of behavior
  45. Differential association theory
    Based on the idea that criminal behavior is learned in the context of intimate groups
  46. #1 state in capitol punishment rates per capita
  47. Top three states in excecutions
    • 1. TX
    • 2. VA
    • 3. OK
  48. How many excecutions has OK had?
  49. How many excecutions has the US had?
  50. When did OK first excecution take place?
  51. What issues surround the debate on capitol punishment?
    • Other victims
    • Innocence
    • Juror misconceptions
    • Deterence
  52. How many states use capitol punishment?
  53. How many states do not use capitol punishment
  54. How many innocent people have been released from death row in OK?
  55. How many innocent people have been released from death row in the US?
Card Set
Sociology Exam 2 (NEW)
sociology exam 2 deviance