ch 61 comp pt

  1. substance abuse is a pattern of drug use that may lead to ______, _______, and ________, or physical problems
    • social
    • occupational
    • psychological
  2. there are more deaths, illnesses, and disabilities from ______ _______ than any other preventable disease
    substance abuse
  3. a pt that uses drugs recreationally may _______ themselves when a stressful situation like a dental appt is anticipated
  4. who's responsibility is it to view chemical dependency of a pt as an illness and to be aware of characteristics that suggest poss substance abuse?
    dental hygienist
  5. what are the alcohols used for drinking? (2)
    ethyl alcohol or ethanol
  6. what is considered moderate alcohol use for men and women that is not considered harmful for the average adult?
    • 2 for men
    • 1 for women
    • so....what's the point of that?
  7. what develops in an unhealthy alcohol use person?
    • (early stage problems)
    • hypertension
    • depression
    • insomnia
    • heartburn
    • absenteeism develop
  8. agressiveness, mood instability, kmpaired judgement; impaired social or occupational functioning; impaired attention and memory; stupor or coma are _______ _______ from the effects of alcohol intoxication
    behavioral changes
  9. slurred speech, incoordination, unsteady gait, and nystagmus (rapid eye movement) are all ________ characteristics of alcohol intoxication
  10. irresponsible actions in work and family settings are _________ to alcohol intoxication
  11. accidents with resultant bruises, ftr's, suicide or brain trauma are all effects of _______ _______
    alcohol intoxication
  12. drinking and driving, sucicide, sexual assault, high-risk sex, alcohol-induced learning impairments are consequences of _________ ________
    underage drinking
  13. four main signs of alcoholism are:
    • craving
    • loss of control
    • physical dependence
    • tolerance
  14. a strong need or compulsion to drink is
  15. the inability to limit one's drinking on any given occasion is _____ __ ______
    loss of control
  16. withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating , shakiness, and anxiousness, when all alcohol use is stopped after a period of heavy drinking is called _______ ________
    physical dependence
  17. the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol in order to get intoxicated. other signs include amnesia and binge drinking
  18. what are the two genes involved in the predisposition to alcohol dependence?
    • GABRA2
    • CHRM2
    • (identified by COGA)
  19. a defective allele (varient) of the gene ALDH2 protects carriers from developing _______ to make them ill after drinking alcohol
  20. t/f children of alcohol-dependent parents are exposed to a lower level of multiple risk factors that lead to alcohol-related problems
    false! exposed to a HIGHER level
  21. t/f children of alcohol-dependent parents are decreased sensitive to alcohol's intoxicating effects. increased sensitivity to the anxiety-reducing effects
    both are true
  22. upon intake of alcohol, it is absorbed _______ from the stomach and small intestine into the _________
  23. alcohol is transported to the ______ for metabolism
  24. more than ___% of ingested alcohol is converted into acetaldehyde, then acetone and finally into carbon dioxide by water action of various liver _____
    • 90%
    • enzymes
  25. high _________ levels and chronic alcohol consumption impair liver function and lead to liver damage
  26. within ___ minutes after ingestion, alcohol can be detected in the blood
    5 minutes!
  27. less than ___% of alcohol is excreted directly through the lungs, skin, and kidney (breath, sweat, and urine)
  28. a person's alcohol level can be determined by testing what four things?
    • blood
    • urine
    • saliva
    • water vapor in the breath
  29. what is BAC?
    blood alcohol concentration
  30. what is tested by law enforcement for a breathalizer test?
  31. BAC is then converted into equivalent blood alcohol ________
  32. what is the legal level of intoxication?
  33. BAC is the amount of alcohol by ______, in a set volume of blood
  34. BAC is measured in __/___
  35. BAC of .10% is equivalent of .10 grams of _____ mililiters of blood
  36. t/f BAC measurement reflects a person's drinking rate and rate of metabolism
  37. alcohol is metabolized more ____ than it is absorbed
  38. when does the BAC increase?
    when the alcohol is consumed faster than drinks are being metabolized
  39. ______ is a powerful depressant of the CNS
  40. in low doses, alcohol can act as a ___________ and as a relaxant. _______ may be produced
    • disinhibitor
    • euphoria
  41. in high doses, alcohol can produce __________ effects with reduction of anxiety generally accompanied by reduced alertness and reduced judgement
  42. alcohol-related illnesses may involve any _____ system
  43. what is the MOST outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality from liver diseases?
    chronic alcohol
  44. ALD stands for:
    alcoholic liver disease
  45. early stages are reversible with abstinence of _____ ______ with degeneration
    fatty liver
  46. inflammation of the liver is:
    alcoholic hepatitis
  47. when healthy cells are replaced by scar tissue it is called:
    early fibrosis
  48. individuals with hep ____ are more susceptible to ADL
  49. risk for many bacterial infections is increased, particularly pulmonary diseases such as: (5)
    • pneumonia
    • tb
    • viral infections
    • hep B
    • hep C
  50. alcohol ingestion alters the stomach ______, stimulates _____ acid secretion, and affects ______ function
    • mucosa
    • gastric
    • gastric
  51. bleeding lesions may develop in the digestive system with desquamination of the _______ _______ (acute gastritis)
    stomach lining
  52. when there is injury to the small intestines, what 3 things occur?
    • diarrhea
    • weight loss
    • vitamin deficiencies
  53. t/f large quantities of alcohol causes the individual to lose interest in nutritional food, which leads to deficiencies
  54. _______ malnutrition develops from direct effects of alcohol on the ___ tract. malabsorption and maldigestion occur following ____ changes in the intestinal wall
    • secondary
    • GI
    • cellular
  55. what are the cardiovascular disease risks for alcoholics? (5)
    • cardiomyopathy
    • coronary artery disease
    • hypertension
    • arrhythmias
    • hemorrhagic stroke
  56. decreased risk for heart attack and stroke is associated with ____ to ____ use
    light to moderate
  57. heavy consumption of alcohol increases the ____ rate from cardiovascular diseases
  58. cardiovascular diseases are associated with early coronary calcification in ____ adults
  59. what are the 8 health hazards of alcohol abuse?
    • liver disease
    • immunity and infection
    • digestive system
    • nutritional deficiencies
    • cardiovascular diseases
    • neoplasms
    • nervous system
    • reproductive system
  60. alcohol use increases the risk of many types of cancers , esp ______ and _____ tracts
    • ailmentary
    • respiratory tracts
  61. alcohol + tobacco = increased _______ (abnormal mass of tissue) of the oral cavity, _____ and larynx
    • neoplams
    • pharynx
  62. early changes affect intellectual actions, judgement, and learning ability.
    long term alcohol abuse combined with malnutrition can lead to damage of both central and peripheral nervous systems
    prolonged and heavy alcohol consumption leads to chronic brain damage
    these are all part of the ____ and _____ nervous system
    central and peripheral
  63. what is a brain disorder of the cerebellum as the result of a thiamine deficiency associated with chronic alcohol consumption calleD?
    Wernicke-korsakoff's syndrome
  64. symptoms of mental confusion, ocular and gait disturbances is called:
    wernicke's encephalopathy
  65. persistent learning and memory problems characterized by forgetfulness; easy frustration and lack of muscle coordination; and retrograde and anterograde amnesia is called:
    korsakoff's psychosis
  66. alcohol affects every branch of the ______ system, ____ and _____ through the body's organization of the endocrine hormones
    • endocrine
    • directly and indirectly
  67. a female will experience _______ disturbances, failure to ovulate, and early ________ if they are an alcoholic
    • menstrual
    • menopause
  68. an alcoholic male can end up with _______ atrophy, suppression of _______, loss of ______ sperm cells, ______ and failure of gonadal function
    • testicular
    • testosterone
    • mature
    • feminization
  69. FAS is:
    fetal alcohol syndrome
  70. prenatal ______ exposure is the LEADING preventable cause of birth defects
    alcohol (mostly seen in trailer parks....)
  71. t/f alcohol cannot pass through the placenta because there is a barrier protecting it
    FALSE! there is NO placental barrier
  72. alcohol consumption increases the incidence of spontaneous ________ and ________
    • abortions
    • still-births
  73. if a child has FAS, they have ______ and ______ growth retardation and facial _________
    • prenatal and postnatal
    • dysmorphology
  74. FAS: midface will be _____, depressed; underdeveloped _____. nose will be ______, upturned, with ______ nasal bridge. micrognathia. the ears will have ________ of shape and position
    • flattened
    • maxilla
    • short
    • sunken
    • anomalies
  75. the neurological features of FAS can include _______
  76. _____ _____ system is involved in FAS. reduction in size of _____ ______, cerebellum, or ______ ganglia. they can have problems with _____ or _____ spatial learning
    • central nervous
    • corpus callosum
    • basal
    • visual or verbal
  77. abstract thinking, planning and organizing are examples of executive functioning of ____
  78. poor coordination, abnormal gait are examples of motor functioning of ____
  79. do FAS peeps have attention or hyperactivity problems
  80. do you think social skills and behavioral dysfunction fall into the category of FAS?
    if you guess are a WINNER!
Card Set
ch 61 comp pt
comp pt ch 61