Pharmacology Drugs

  1. Diuretics
    • Hypertension
    • 1. Excretion of sodium and water in urine
    • 2. Decrease Blood Volume--> decrease BP

    Ex. Lasix (Furosemide)
  2. Beta Blockers
    • Hypertension
    • Block the action of Epinephrine at all beta receptors.

    • Ex. Atenolol (Tenormin)
    • Metrodolol (Lopressor, Toprol)
  3. Alpha/Beta Blockers
    • Hypertension
    • Block alpha and beta 3 receptors in blood vessels

    • Ex. Carvedilol (Coreg)
    • Labetalol (Lopressor, Toprol)
  4. Alpha Blockers
    • Hypertension
    • Alpha receptors- peripheral (veins and arteries)

    • Ex. Doxazonsin (Cardura)
    • Praxazosin (Minipress)
    • Terazosin (Hytrin)
  5. Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Hypertension
    • Block movement of Calcium into cardiac muscle and smooth muscle
    • decrease heart rate, dilate arteries, lowers BP

    • ex. Amiopipne (Norvasc)
    • Diltiamzem (Cardizem)
    • Nicardipine (Carpene)
    • Nepedipine (Procardia)
  6. Angiotensin- Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
    • Hypertension
    • Blocks the enzyme that converts angiotensin 1- angiotensin 2 (angiotensin 2- vasoconstrictor)

    • Ex. Enalapril (Vasotec)
    • Ramipril (Altace)
    • Lisinopril (Zestril)
    • Benazepril (Lotzinsin)
  7. Angiotensin II Recptor Blocker (ARB)
    • Hypertension
    • Blocks Angiotensin II with receptors
    • Provides vascular relaxation (vasodilation)

    • ex. Isoartan (Cozaar)
    • Valsartan (Diovan)
    • Olmesartan (Benicar)
  8. Periperal Vasodilator Drugs
    • Hypertension
    • Relax smooth muscle in vessels and causes vasodilation

    • ex. hydrazaline (Appresoline)
    • Minoxidil
  9. Combination Drugs Hypertension
    • Hypertension
    • Contain some combination of beta blockers, ace inhibitors, calcium channel blocker, Renin inhibitor, ARB, and/or diuretic

    Ex. Amiodipine (Ca+) and Benzipril (ACE)
  10. Other Drugs for HTN
    • Stimulate Alpha 2 receptors in vasomotor center of brain
    • Reduces nerve impulse from sympathetic nervous system to adrenal medulla- decrease EPI secretion, decrease HR, vasodilation, and decrease BP
  11. Bile Acid Sequestrant Drugs
    • Hyperlipidemia
    • Causes bile to be eliminated- not absorbed
    • Decrease LDL

    • Ex. Chloestyramine (Prevalite)
    • Colesevelam (WelChol)
  12. Hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG- COA) Statin
    • Hyperlipidemia
    • controls amount of enzyme in metabolic pathways in the liver- reduces LDL

    • Ex. Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
    • Pravastatin (Dravachol)
    • Simcastatin (Zocor)
  13. Drugs for Hyperchloesterolemia and Hypertriglyceridemia
    • 1. Decrease serum and level of LDL and triglycerides
    • 2. Increase serum of HDL

    • Ex. Niacin (Niacor, Niaspan)
    • Omega 3 Fatty Acids (Promega, Pearls)
  14. Combination Drugs Hyperlipidemia
    Elevate, cholestoral plus other conditions

    • Ex. Caduet- Amlodipine and Atoruastatin
    • Advicor- Lovastatin and Niacin
  15. Congestive Heart Failure- Right Side
    • causes blood to back up from the right ventricle
    • a. may result in distended neck veins, liver enlargement, edema in extremities
  16. Congestive Heart Failure- Left Side
    • causes blood to back up from the left ventricle to the pulmonary circulatory system
    • a. may result in pulmonary edema
  17. Treatment for Congestive Heart Failure
    Digitalis, ACE Inhibitors, and ARBs
  18. Digitalis
    • Congestive Heart Failure
    • Slows the electrical system (-chronotrope) increases contractility (+inotrope)

    Digoxin (Digitek- Lanoxin)
  19. Drugs for Digitalis Toxicity
    Occurs in the liver and kidney, unable to to metabolize and excrete the drug.

    • Cholestyramine (Prevalite)
    • Cholestoprol (Colestid)
    • Digoxin Immune FAB (Frag Antibody Binding) (Digibind, Digidote)
  20. Diuretic Drugs for CHF
    increase excretion of Na and H2O

    • Chlorothiazide (Diuril)
    • Furozemide (Lasix)
  21. ACE Inhibitor For CHF
    • CHF
    • Causes vasodilation---> reduces BP, reduces systemic resistance.
    • used in digitalis and diuretics
  22. ARBs for CHF
    • CHF
    • causes vasodilation, decreases BP, and decreases
    • systemic resistance

    • Candesartan (Atacand)
    • Valsartan (Diovan)
    • Inotrops- increases contractility
    • Milirinone (Primacor)
    • Vasopressors- stimulate Beta 1 increase HR, and stimulates alpha receptors in vessels- vasoconstriction
    • increases BP
    • Dobutamine
    • Dopamine
  24. Angina Pectoris
    Nitroglycerin, Beta-Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers
  25. Nitroglycerin- Angina
    • Angina
    • dilate coronary vessels, dilate systemic vessels, decreases BP, decreases Afterload, decreases Preload

    • Nitrostat
    • Nitrodur
    • Minitran
  26. Beta- Blockers- Angina
    • Angina
    • decreases HR, decrease O2 demand, decrease pain

    • Atenolol (Tenormin)
    • Metropolol (Lopressor)
    • Nadolol (Corgard)
  27. Calcium Channel Blockers- Angina
    • Angina
    • Slows conduction, decreases HR, decreases O2 demand, decreases pain, vasodilates, decreases BP

    • Amlodipine (Norvasc)
    • Dilazem (Cardizem)
    • Nicarpine (Cardene)
    • Vepapamil (Covera)
  28. Treats MI
    This is irreversible but these are used to help improve survival rate.

    Thrombolytics, Beta Blockers, Alpha-beta Blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARB, Platelet
  29. Arrhythmias
    abnormalities in conduction system

    Atropine, Ephedrine, Isoproterenol (Isopril), Beta-Blockers, Amiodarone, Adenosine, Procainamide, Propafenone
  30. Arrhythmia- Symptomatic Bradycardia
    • Arrhythmias
    • block Acetcholine, increase heart rate

    Atropine is 1st choice for this rhythm
  31. Arrhythmia- Heart Block
    • Arrhythmia
    • Abnormalities in SA node impules

  32. Arrhythmia- Tachycardia
    fast heart rate over 200bmp

    beta blocker- decrease HR, calcium channel blocker- decrease HR, vasodilate, amiodarone, adenosine, procainamide, propafenone
  33. Arrhythmia- A Flutter and A Fib
    Abnormality in atrium

    • Clonidine- decreases BP
    • Digoxin- + inotrope -chronotrope
    • Beta Blocker- decreases HR
    • Calcium Channel Blocker- decreases HR, vasodilate
  34. Arrhythmia- Ventricular Fib.
    extremely fast, uncoordinated quiver in heart, unable to pump blood- life threatening situation

    • Amiodarone- (cordarone)
    • Lidocaine- (Xylocaine)
  35. Arrhythmia- Asystole
    complete cardia arrest

    • epinephrine (adrenaline) stimulant
    • Adenosine
  36. Hypertensive Crisis- Life Threatening
    Extremely high blood pressure

    • Beat Blocker- decrease heart rate
    • Calcium Channel Blockers
    • Vasodilator
  37. Beta-Blockers
  38. Alpha/Beta Blockers
    ilol, alol
  39. Alpha Blockers
  40. Calcium Channel Blockers
  41. ACE Inhibitor
  42. ARB
Card Set
Pharmacology Drugs
CFI Pharm