History 101

  1. Polis
    Small city-state

    Each has its own government and culture
  2. Acropolis
    Elevated part of a Polis

    This is where all the rituals and worship was done. Important buildings located here.
  3. Hellas

    the People of Greece
  4. Barbaroi
    "Barbarians" came from this

    This means anyone who does not belong to Helas
  5. Graeci
  6. Agora
    The urban part of a Polis
  7. Sparta
    • Government: Oligarchy.
    • Very Conservative, did not like change.
    • War was their nature and jobs.

    Periokoi had some rights(marriage, inheritence) yet only could not vote or participate in politics.
  8. Homoioi
    Adult male citizens of Sparta

    +18 years of age
  9. Periokoi
    "House Dwellers"

    Women, children, elderly
  10. Helots
    Spartan slaves

    Were Messinians at one time, but Sparta conquered them to provide for its people

    Lived in "Lots"
  11. Messinia
    A polis that was conquered by Sparta so Sparta could provide for its people.

    Messinians were turned into Helots.
  12. Krypteia
    The test for a Spartan boy to become a man(Initiation Rite)
  13. Agoge
    Training system for Sparta(school) for physical, moral, and civil education
  14. Deme
  15. Cleisthenes
    This man performed the first reforms tried out for Athens

    Turned the polis into a Democracy
  16. Athens
    Became a Democracy

    Ruled by Council of 500

    Little rights for Women besides bearing children.
  17. Council of 500
    Random drawing to decide who's in it.

    Usually Idle-Rich were in it because before, Pay for Public Service, people could not afford to.
  18. Pericles
    • Expanded Democracy
    • Started Pay for Public Service

    brought and end to the Persian Wars, yet he started the Peloponnesian Wars by using all the Polis's money to flourish Athens.
  19. Persian Empire
    • Persians wanted to conquer Greece
    • Middle East/Asia Minor

    Darius was one of the Persian Emperors who took over many of the Greek city-states

    Darius looses against Athens fleet at the Battle of Marathon.
  20. Hoplite
    Greek Soldiers

    Fought using battle tactic called Phalanx
  21. Delian League
    Pushed by Pericles, A group of Greek city-states made this League in case Persia would attack again. They were forced to pay taxes to fund a large army/navy.
  22. Peloponnesian Wars
    Started from Pericles using the Delian League's money to flourish Athens.

    Delian League Splits and half stay with Athens while other half goes to Sparta

    Sparta wins yet this has left Greece bankrupt and weak.
  23. What starts the Muslim Calender
    Muhammad's removal from the city of Mecca in 622 AD
  24. Battle of Andrianople
    Goths win the first major battle against Romans
  25. Effects of Andrianople
    • -Death of Valens
    • -The 'Magister Militum'(highest rank in Roman military) always was a German after.
  26. Punic Wars
    Wars fought between Rome and Carthage.

    Rome wants to expand along Med. Sea.

    Rome wins and burns Carthage.
  27. Gracchi Brothers (Tiberius and Gaius)
    • Brothers who tried to reform Rome
    • Both get murdered in trying to do so
    • Civil war breaks out
  28. 1st Triumverate
    • Pompeii and Julius Caesar were part of this three way power.
    • All of them were to team up and gain power in the Senate

    Caesar ultimately defeats Pompeii after Pompeii betrayed him.

    Caesar declares himself dictator
  29. 2nd Triumverate
    • Mark Antony and Octavian Augustus were part of the three way power
    • They wanted to avenge Caesars death.
    • Mark Antony took over Egypt and its surrounding areas while Octavian took over Rome and its surrounding areas.

    Octavian starts war against Mark Antony after having and affair with Cleopatra.
  30. Augustus
    Octavians self-proclaimed name
  31. Mycenae
    The 1st Greek city that mysteriously disappeared
  32. Bread and Circus
    Emperor's way of distracting the Plebians from the economic and social problems

    Free Bread was given out while entertainment was shown(ex. Colliseum)
  33. Edict of Milan
    Christianity became legal

    Passed by Constantine
  34. Constantines Conversion
    He was praying one night before a battle and got a vision from God. God told him to put the sign 'Christos' on the shields.

    After putting it on, he won an enormous victory and then converted to Christianity and wanted to thank God.
  35. Pax Romana
    Time of peace in Roman Empire

    Ended with Marcus Arailius's death and started with Octavian Augustus
  36. Tetrarchy
    A government that has four rulers and VP's.

    Diocletian turned the Roman empire into this.
  37. Bedouins
    • the majority of people living in Arabia
    • Nomadic people
  38. Pericles Funeral Orations Main Parts
    • Women shouldn't be mad about the wars but instead be happy that the men were dying for 'Democracy'.
    • Sparta is a horrible Polis(Even though they have more rights for women and children than Athens).
  39. Gnostics
    • Some Gospels that were not allowed into the Bible.
    • These Gospels and writings showed Jesus as a God instead of half human, half divine. They mainly talked about Jesus' sayings and words of wisdom
    • They also showed that there was only Jesus, no Father or Holy Spirit
    • An example is Gospel of Thomas.
  40. Gaul
    Modern day France. Home of one of the groups of Barbarians that revolted in Roman Empire. They won the key battle in the decline of Rome.
Card Set
History 101
Roman Empire, Christianity, and Greece/Helenistic