Biology Test 2

  1. solution that
    causes crenation (shrivel/shrink) of animal cells
  2. water moves from inside the cell to outide the cell
    solution with higher concentration
    causes shrinking/shriveling
    hypertonic solution
  3. solution that
    does not cause bursting in plant cells
    it causes the central vacuole to increase in size and causes turgor pressure in the cell
    (keeping plant upright)
  4. solution that
    causes animal cells to swell and burst
  5. a solution with a lower concentration of solutes than the cell
    cell expands
  6. in these conditions plants are said to be flacid
  7. does not change the shape of plant cells
  8. solution that
    does not change shape of animal cells
    this is the desired condition for animal cells
  9. a solution with the same concentration of solutes as the cell
    Cells do not change shape
  10. ability of a solution to change the shape of a cell
  11. the diffusion of water through a semipermeable or selectively permeable membrane
  12. help join animal cells together or provide some sort of bridge between animal cells
    junction proteins
  13. some mebrane proteins act as enzymes and carry out chemical reactions
    enzymatic proteins
  14. bind specific extracellular molecules and cause some type of cellular reaction in response
    receptor proteins
  15. usually glycoproteins
    act as "name tags" for the cells
    any "non self" or "foreign" cells will be destroyed by the immune system
    cell recognition proteins
  16. proteins designed to bind a specific molecule and transport it across the membrane
    carrier proteins
  17. hollow proteins that allow small molecules to pass freely through the membrane
    channel proteins
  18. proteins with carbohydrate groups attached
  19. lipids with carbohydrate groups attached
  20. carbohydrates are attached to proteins or lipids
    carbohydrate chain
  21. strengthen and stiffen the membrane (add stability to the membrane)
  22. embedded in the phospholipid bilayer
  23. creates a unique barrier in which any molecule wishing to pass through must pass through both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions
  24. made of glycerol with a phosphate group and two fatty acids attached to it
  25. most widely accepted model for membrane structure
    fluid mosaic model
  26. controls movement of materials into and out of the cell
    plasma membrane
  27. forms a boundary between the cell and its environment
    plasma membrane
  28. movement of molecules from a low concentration to a high concentration with the help of carrier proteins and with the use of ATP
    active transport
  29. movement of materials from the inside of the cell to the outside of the cell using membrane bound vesicle. Can be excretion or secretion
  30. getting rid of waste
  31. releasing a usable product such as mucus, hormones, or digestive enzymes
  32. the movement of materials from the outside of the cell to the inside of the cell using a membrane bound vesicle
  33. taking in large particles using pseudopods (cellular extensions of the membrane)
    "cell eating"
  34. taking in small or dissolved particles by forming a "pit" and taking in whatever particles gets pulled into the pit
    "cell drinking"
  35. a form of pinocytosis that is different where receptors in the plasma membrane bind the desired molecules and then a pit forms and brings them inside the cell
    receptor-mediated endocytosis
  36. consist of plaques on the inside of each cell with filaments joining the cells attached to the plaques
    adhesion junction
  37. consist of protiens that rivet to cells together in a zipper-like fashion.
    tight junctions
  38. are junctions made of a group of proteins formed into circle with a small passageway in the middle
    gap junctions
  39. this type of junction is very strong but flexible
    adhesion junction
  40. this junction can be found between the cells of your skin, in the heart, bladder and other organs
    adhesion juncitons
  41. this junction creates a sturdy, flexible sheet of cells
    adhesion junction
  42. this type of junction is tight
    tight injunction
  43. these junctions do not let materials pass between the cells
  44. these junctions are found between the cells in the digestive tract
    tight junctions
  45. these junctions keep the digestive enzymes away from the inner cells of the digestive tract
    tight injuctions
  46. these junctions join cells together but also allow small molecules to pass between cells
    gap juncitons
  47. these junctions can be found in heart muscle where they allow the elctrical impulse to travel form one cell to another and allow the hear to contract as a unit
    gap junctions
  48. all plant cells have a this type of cell wall that is made of cellulose and pectins that allow the primary wall to be flexible
    primary cell wall
  49. some plant cells also have this type of cell wall which contains a greater concentration of cellulose
    secondary cell wall
  50. this cell wall is more rigid and is not as flexible
    secondary cell wall
  51. this cell wall is seen in pants in the "woody" parts such as trunks and branches
    secondary cell wall
  52. cell walls are not entirely complete and are punctuated by numerous plasmodesmata
    plant cell walls
  53. membrane lined channels that pass through the cell wall and connect plant cells together
  54. allows the passage of water and small solutes between plant cells
    allowing some equalization of water pressure in the plant
  55. when placed in water the _________ orient themselves with the water in a bilayer with the polar heads facing the outer suface and facing the inner surface of the bilayer
    polar heads
  56. the ____ are located inside the bilayer forming their own nonpolar environment away from the water
    nonpolar tails
  57. helps maintain the fluidity of the membrane
  58. what type of sterol do animals have
  59. what type of sterol do fungi have
  60. what type of sterol do plants have
  61. what are similar to phospholipids with the exception that their phosphate group is replaced with a carbohydrate group
  62. what forms glcocalyx
    glycolipids and glycoproteins
  63. what functions in cell identification and helps cells stick together
  64. what explains the reason of when a person gets an organ transplant will have to take drugs to supress their immune system or that organ will be rejected
    cell recognition proteins
  65. when insulin binds to the insulin receptor, this triggers the cell to begin taking in glucose due to which protein
    receptor protein
  66. the _____ the concentration of the solutes the _______ the concentration of water
    higher, lower
  67. the _________ the concentration of the solutes the ________ the concentration of water
    lower , higher
  68. this results in water moving from a high concentration (outside the cell) to a lower concentration (inside the cell)
  69. this results in water moving from a high concentration (inside the cell) to a lower concentraion (outside the cell)
  70. The energy of motion
    could include mechanical energy, electrical energy or radiant energy
    Kinetic energy
  71. moving matter such as a car or your muscles
    mechanical energy
  72. movement of charged particles: nerve impulses, electricity
    Electrical energy
  73. energy that moves in waves: heat, microwaves
    radiant energy
  74. stored or inactive energy
    potential energy
  75. what type of energy would be:
    water behind a dam
    (the water is not producing energy while it is behind the dam, but could if it was released)
    potential energy
  76. energy stored in chemical bonds
    chemical energy
  77. a type of potential energy
    chemical energy
  78. what type of energy is ATP and example of
    chemical energy
  79. energy involved in moving matter
    mechanical energy
  80. the study of energy and its transformations
  81. energy can not be created or destroyed but it can be changed from one form to another
    first law of thermodynamics
  82. energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of usable energy
    second law of thermodynamics
  83. in what form is energy lost in living things according to the second law of thermodynamics
  84. the relative amount of disorder or disorganization
  85. each energy transformation that occurs increases the amount of ___________ in the universe
  86. _____ in the universe is continually increasing
  87. chemical reations that involve energy transformations
    metabolic reactions
  88. reactions that are reversible
    generally metabolic reactions
  89. it is important that all chemical reactions are __________
    theoretically reversible
  90. reactions that reach a chemical equilibrium where the concentrations of reactants and product are constant
    reversible reactions
  91. require the input of energy
    endergonic reactions
  92. are reactions that release energy
    exergonic reactions
  93. metabolic pathways that build larger molecules from smaller molecules
    biosynthetic pathways
  94. metabolic pathways that break down molecules
    degradative pathways
  95. all enzymes are _______
  96. all enzymes are _______ which speed up chemical reactions
    biological catalysts
  97. enzymes will not cause a ______ to occur that would not occur naturally
    chemical reaction
  98. all enzymes are specific for their ______
  99. a substance that the enzyme acts upon
  100. all enzymes simply help a _____ occur
    chemical reaction
  101. enzymes ______ chemical reactions
    speed up
  102. enzymes do not become part of the _____ and is not used up by the _____
    product, reaction
  103. the more concentrated a substrate the faster an enzyme will react
    substrate concentration
  104. enzymes work better with
    warm temperature and a neutral pH
  105. if the temperature rises too much, the enzyme could be _____ and not be usable
  106. the more concentrated an enzyme is, the faster the reaction will occur
    enzyme concentration
  107. the amount of protein that is produced from a gene
    what helps regulate enzyme concentration
    gene expression
  108. molecules that are necessary for an enzyme to function
    cofactors "enzyme helpers"
  109. inorganic ion or organic (but nonprotein) molecules
  110. when the active enzyme is prevented from combining with its substrate
    enzyme inhibition
  111. where a molecule binds to the active site and prevents the substrate from binding
    competitive inhibitors
  112. where a molecule binds to the enzyme and changes the shape of the active site and prevents the substrate from binding
    non-competitve inhibitors
  113. where the non-competitive inhibitor binds
    allosteric site
  114. where the end product of a metabolic pathway binds to the enzyme and prevents it from binding with its substrate
    feedback inhibition
  115. enzypes work by the enzyme cycle
    enzyme activity
  116. an enzyme is not used by the ______ and it does not become part of the _____
    reaction, product
  117. enzyme+substrate -> enzyme substrate complex -> product + enzyme
  118. the loss of electrons from a molecule
  119. the gain of electrons from a molecule
  120. a series of membrane bound carriers that pass electrons from one carrier to another
    • ETS
    • electron transport systems
  121. oval organelles found in photosynthetic cells
  122. have an outer membrane and an inner membrane that is folded into disks
  123. this organelle is responsible for the process of photosynthesis
  124. a packet of radiant (light) energy
  125. vary in wavelength and energy
  126. photons of ____ wavelength have more energy than photons of _____ wavelength
    short, longer
  127. absorb all waavelengths of light except for green and yellow-green
    chlorophylls (A and B)
  128. reflect the green and yellow-green
    (this is why the plants look green)
    chlorophylls (A and B)
  129. the primary chlorophyll
    chlorophyll A
  130. absorbs blue-violet and red and reflects yellow-green
    looks grass green
    chlorophyll A
  131. picks up what the other chlorophyll miss
    chlorophyll B
  132. absorbs blue and orange and red
    looks more blue-green
    chlorophyll B
  133. a cluster of 200 to 300 pigment molecules located in the thylakoid membrane
  134. sometimes called accessory pigments
  135. contribute to photosynthesis
  136. absorb blue-violet and/or blue-green and reflect either red, yellow and/or orange
  137. pigments that are found in leaves but are masked by the chlorophylls
  138. can be seen in leaves in the fall when the chlorophylls break down
  139. pigments found in many flowers, fruits and vegetables
  140. molecules that absorb different wavelengths of light
  141. small openings in a leaf that allows air to enter
  142. the fluid filled interiror
  143. where light independent reactions occur
  144. disks made from folds of the inner membrane
  145. light dependent reactions occur along these membranes
  146. the process by which carbon and energy enter the web of life
  147. the process that uses sun energy (radiant energy) to take carbon dioxide and water and produce ocygen and glucose
  148. consists of light dependent and light independent reactions (sometimes called light and dark reactions)
  149. can produce their own food (their own glucose)
  150. use photosynthesis to produce glucose
  151. use chemical reactions to produce glucose
  152. organisms that must consume organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) made by their own organism
  153. must eat plant or animal materials
  154. ATP is produced by the movement of electrons down an ETS
  155. during this process the electrons travel with hydrogen ions (H+)
  156. during this process the hydrogen ions become more concentrated on one side of a membrane
  157. hydrogen ions can move by the process of diffusion through an enzyme complex which is called
    ATP synthase
  158. uses the energy from the movement of the hydrogen ions to produce ATP
    ATP synthase
  159. what produces ATP
  160. can be used for energy
  161. made of glucoses and is stored for later use
  162. is a disaccharide madeof glucose and fructose
  163. is the form of sugar that is easily transported around inside the plant
  164. is made of glucoses and is used to make the cell wall
  165. G3P can be used to make ______that are converted into lipids
    fatty acids
  166. G3P can be used to make ________ that are used to make proteins
    amino acids
  167. glucose, strach, sucrose, cellulose, fatty acids, amino acids are all organic mollecules made from which process
    G3P light idependent reaction (calvin cycle)
  168. these plants tend to live in moderate climates with sufficient rainfall
    c3 photosynthesis
  169. these plants fix carbon dioxide directly to ribulose biphosphate using the enzyme ribulose biphosphate carboxylase
    c3 photosynthesis
  170. these are plants that live in hotter drier climates
    c4 photosynthesis
  171. these plants include sugarcane, some grasses (like crabgrass) and corn
    c4 photosynthesis
  172. these plants take carbon dioxide into a mesophyll cell and fix it to PEP producing oxaloacetate
    c4 photosynthesis
  173. these plants convert oxaloacetate to malate which is moved into bundle sheath cells where the Calvin cycle takes place
    c4 photosynthesis
  174. by fixing carbon dioxide these plants can control the opening and closing of their stomata and reduce water loss
    c4 photosynthesis
  175. these are plants that live in very arid environments
    CAM photosynthesis
  176. these plants fix carbon dioxide directly to ribulose biphosphate using the enzyme ribulose biphosphate carboxylase
    c3 photosynthesis
  177. these plants are succulent plants such as cacti
    CAM photosynthesis
  178. the difference for these plants is that they only open their stomata during the night
    CAM photosynthesis
  179. pores in the leaves
  180. openings that allow carbon dioxide in but also allow water to leave
  181. for these plants the nights are cooler and water loss is reduced when the stomata are opened
    CAM photosynthesis
  182. the carbon dioxide taken in at night is converted to PEP that is stored in large vacuoles in mesyphyll cells for these plants
    CAM photosynthesis
  183. for these plants the PEP can be used in the day when ATP and NADPH are available from the light reactions to turn the Calvin cycle
    CAM photosynthesis
  184. photosynthesis consists of two phases
    • noncyclic light dependent
    • calvin cycle
  185. where is the noncyclic light dependent reaction located
    thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast
  186. what are the reactants of the noncyclic light dependent reaction
    photosystems, photon, and water
  187. what are the products of the noncyclic light dependent reaction
    ATP, NADPH and oxygen
  188. _____ absorb photon energy and release electrons to higher energy levels. These electrons are used to produce ATP through ETS and also are used to produce NADPH
    during which cycle
    photosytems, noncyclic light dependent
  189. ____ takes water and breaks it down into electrons, dydrogen ions and oxygen. These electrons are used to replace the electrons lost from P680 (photosystem II)
    during which cycle
    photolysis, noncyclic light dependent
  190. where does the calvin cycle take place
    the stroma of the chloroplast
  191. what are the reactants of the calvin cycle
    RuBP, ATP, NADPH, and carbon dioxide
  192. what are the products of the calvin cycle
    glucose and RuBP
  193. what important intermediate is used to make glucose and other organic moleclues like amino acids and fatty acids
    during which cycle
    G3P, calvin cycle
  194. what is used to make starch and sucrose
  195. this electron flow pathway is not involved in photosynthesis
    cyclic light dependent
  196. this electron clow pathway is simply used to produce ATP
    cyclic light dependent
  197. this electron flow pathway originated in ancient bacteria and is used today by some bacteria and by plants to supplement ATP production
    cyclic light dependent
  198. during this cycle the electron that leaves the photosystem is used to make ATP through an ETS and then is returned to the phosystem
    cyclic light dependent
  199. this electron flow pathway uses only photosystem I
    cyclic light dependent
  200. this electron flow pathway does not produce glucose
    cyclic light dependent
  201. this cycle uses P700 only and the electron released by P700 is returned to P700 (which is why its called a cycle)
    cyclic light dependent
  202. during the noncyclic pathway P680 loses an electron that must be replaced. ______ is how this replacement occurs.
  203. a cellular process which requires oxygen to break down glucose, giving off carbon dioxide, water and energy in the form of ATP
    cellular respiration
  204. eukaryotic cells produce ___ ATP moleucles per glucose
  205. prokaryotic cells produce ___ ATP per glucose
  206. are coenzymes that can pick up hydrogen ions and electrons and act as electron carriers
    NAD+ and FAD
  207. are electron carriers that carry electrons to the ETS
    NAD+ and FAD
  208. takes glucose, splits it and forms two pyruvate molecules along with ATP and NADH
  209. takes pyruvate and produces acetyl CoA and NADH
    preparatory reactions
  210. takes acetyl CoA and produces ATP, NADH and FADH2
    citric acid cycle
  211. takes the NADH and FADH2 and uses them to produce ATP
    electron transport chain
  212. the breakdown of glucose to produce ATP without oxygen available
  213. this process really includes just glycolysis and then the conversions of pyruvate to either alcohol or some sort of acid
  214. a term used to describe a process that does not use oxygen
  215. a process used by yeast
    alcohol fermentation
  216. when a yeast can function with oxygen
  217. when a yeast can function without oxygen
  218. bread uses _______ respiration and some _______ to produce the carbon dioxide that causes the bread to rise
    aerobic, fermentation
  219. beer uses _____ fermentation to produce alcohol
  220. in ______ fermentation the yeast break the glucose into G3P, then into pyruvate and convert the pyruvate into alcohol
  221. how many ATP molecules are produced per glucose during alcohol fermentation
  222. alcohol fermentation is not as efficient as _____ fermentation
  223. bacterial cells and human muscle cells produce acids when using anaerobic fermentation
    lactate fermentation
  224. human cells produce which type of acid
    acid lactate (lactic acid)
  225. when muscle cells work very hard they cannot take in enough oxygen to power ____ respiration
  226. lactate fermentation produces ____ and ___ when using the anaerobic fermentation pathways
    lactate or lactic acid
  227. what is responsible for muscle aches associated with hard work and exercise
    due to it being damaging to the cells
  228. cells get rid of excess lactate by using ___ converting it back to ____
    oxygen, pyruvate
  229. which process results in oxygen debt
    lactate fermentation
  230. during catabolism all carbohydrates are broken down into ___ and all ___, if they are not ____ are converted to ____
    • monosaccharides, monosaccharides
    • glucose, glucose
  231. during catabolism all fats are broken down into ___ and ___
    glycerol, fatty acids
  232. during catabolism glycerel is converted into ___ which enter ____
    G3P, glycolysis
  233. during catabolism the fatty acids are converted to ___ and enter the ___ cycle
    acetyl CoA, citric acid
  234. during catabolism all proteins are broken down into ____
    amino acids
  235. during catabolism amino acids are ____
  236. nutrients other than glucose can be used to produce ATP during which process
  237. just as other organic molecules can enter the aerobic respiration pathways and be used to produce ATP, molecules within the aerobic resspiration pathways can be used to make or synthesize organic molecules during which process
  238. during anabolism G3P can be converted to __
  239. during anabolism Acetyl CoA can be converted to ____
    fatty acids
  240. during anabolism the glycerol and fatty acids can be reassembled to make ___
  241. if you eat too much sugar you can convert glucose to fats using G3P and acetyl CoA during which two steps of anabolism
    glycolysis and the trasition reaction
  242. during anabolism amino acids can also be produced from intermediates within the ____ cycle
    citric acid
  243. we produce 11 of the 20 amino acids through anabolism the other 9 we must get from our diet and they are called ____
    essential amino acids
  244. what are used to make protein for the cells
    amino acids
  245. energy ultimately comes from the ___
  246. radiant energy is converted in the chemical energy of ____
  247. glucose is converted into the chemical energy of ____
  248. the chemical energy of ATP is used to drive cellular body processes that require ___ or ____ energy
    mechanical or radiant
  249. ATP is also used to drive ____ reactions in the cells
  250. since energy cannot be converted from one form to another without the loss of usable energy, these processes also produce ___ energy which is lost to the environment
    raidant (heat)
  251. where does the electron transport system (chemiosmosis) take place
    on the cristae
  252. where does the citric acid cycle (also called the Krebs cycle or the TCA cycle) take place
    on the matrix of the mitochondria
  253. where does the preparatory reaction take place
    matrix of the mitochondria
  254. where does glycolysis take place
  255. what reactants does glycolysis require
    • glucose to begin
    • 2 ATP molecules in the first stage
    • 2 NAD+
  256. what are the products of glycolysis
    2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate
  257. what are the folds on the mitochondria structure
  258. what is the fluid inside the mitochondria
  259. an oval organelle with two membranes
  260. what are the reactants of the preparatory reaction
    • 2 pyruvates
    • 2 CoA molecules
    • 2 NAD+
  261. what are the products of the preparatory reaction
    • 2 acetyl CoA molecules
    • 2 NADH molecules
  262. what are the biproducts of the preparatory reaction
    2 carbon dioxide molecules
  263. what are the reactants of the citric acid cycle
    • 2 acetyl CoA molecules
    • 6 NAD+
    • 2 FAD
  264. where does citric acid get its name from
    because the first intermediate produced in the pathway is citric acid or citrate
  265. what are the products of the citric acid cycle
    • oxaloacetate
    • 6 NADH
    • 2 FADH2
    • 2 ATP
  266. what are the biproducts of the citric acid cycle
    4 carbon dioxide molecules
  267. what does the citric acid cycle begin and end with
  268. what are the reactants of the ETS system (chemiosmosis)
    • ETS
    • 10 NADH
    • 2 FADH2
  269. what are the products and biproducts of the ETS system (chemiosmosis)
    34 ATP
  270. how many ATP are produced by the 10 NADH used during the ETS (chemiosmosis) system
    30 ATP
  271. how many ATP are produced by the 2 FADH2 used during the ETS (chemiosmosis) system
    4 ATP
  272. what is the final electron acceptor of ETS (chemiosmosis) system
    oxygen - which combines with the electrons and hydrogen ions to form water
  273. how many ATP are produced in prokaryotic cells during glycolysis
    2 ATP
  274. how many ATP are produced in prokaryotic cells during preparatory reaction
    0 ATP
  275. how many ATP are produced in prokaryotic cells during the citric acid cycle
    2 ATP
  276. how many ATP are produced in prokaryotic cells during the ETS system
    34 ATP
  277. what is the total ATP produced per glucose in prokaryotic cells
    34 ATP
  278. how many ATP are produced in ekaryotic cells during glycolysis
    2 ATP
  279. how many ATP are produced in ekaryotic cells during the prepartory reaction
    0 ATP
  280. how many ATP are produced in ekaryotic cells during the citric acid cycle
    2 ATP
  281. how many ATP are produced in ekaryotic cells during the ETS system
    32 ATP
  282. what is the total ATP produced in ekarytoc cells per glucose
    36 ATP
  283. what is a byproduct of aerobic repiration
    carbon dioxide
  284. what is a byproduct of photsynthesis
  285. what organisms can survive without oxygen due to fermentation
    bacteria and yeast
  286. what cannot survive without oxygen due to fermentation
    nueral tissue (therefore people)
  287. when proteins are broken down into amino acids the amine group is removed
    this is known as
  288. after the amino acids are deaminated and the amine group (ammonia) has been removed it is converted to ___ in the liver
  289. what molecuel is cycled during the citric acid cycle
  290. during a citric acid cycle how many acetyl CoA do you have
    how many times does the cycle turn
    • 2
    • 2
  291. what cell does not have a mitochondria
    prokaryotic cells
  292. ______ characteristic of the plasma membrane due to its ability to allow certain molecules but not others pass through
    differnetially permeable
  293. diffusion of water through the plasma membrane of cells is
  294. higher solute concentration (less water) than the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to lose water by osmosis
    hypertonic solution
  295. protein in plasma membrane that bears a carbohydrate chain
  296. process by which a cell engulfs a substance, forming an intracellular vacuole
Card Set
Biology Test 2
Chapters 5