1. What is a hypothesis?
    an explanation made on observations
  2. List the variables used in an experiment and what they do
    • Independent: the variable being tested. Values are set/systematically altered by the investigator
    • Dependent: the variable which changes due to the independent, the variable being recorded
    • Controlled: The fixed variables, ones which keep the experiment fair and equal
  3. Define Qualitative variables
    Qualitative variables are non numerical, eg. sex, colour, presence or absence of feature
  4. Define Quantitative variables & what are the 2 types
    • Numerical variable, eg. height of family, number of litter (babies)
    • 1. Continuous: height
    • 2. Discontinuous: litter
  5. What is the difference between a treatment, sample and trial?
    • Treatment: well defined conditions applied to sample units (eg. test tubes)
    • Sample: a sub-set of a whole to estimate the values that might have been obtained if every individual or response was measured (made up of sample units)
    • Trial: the repeat of an investigation at a different time
  6. What is biodiversity?
    The diversity of plants, animals, fungi, monera and protista
  7. Why is biodiversity important?
    • Biologists can then study living organisms to help find out how they became so diverse, how they function and how they interact with others
    • This can manage the world's limited resources, help in medicine to cure diseases, control pests & for human benefit.
  8. What is the first step in conserving the world's biodiversity?
    To collect, catalogue and name the organisms (classification)
  9. How can organisms be grouped?
    Environment, Habitat, Food source, Human impact
  10. What are three ways in which organisms can be grouped by human impact?
    • 1. Poisonous
    • 2. Beneficial
    • 3. Dangerous
  11. What is classification?
    another way of describing the process of grouping
  12. What can be classified due to classification?
    organisms, ecosystems and communities
  13. What are the three ways of classifying ecosystems or communities?
    • 1. Climate
    • 2. Dominant organisms
    • 3. Habitat
  14. What is a biome and give an example?
    A biome is a broad category of ecosystems or communities according to their climate. Eg. Australia's temperate climate forests are evergreen forest biomesImage Upload 1
  15. What are the three main classification habitats?
    • Marine
    • Freshwater
    • Terrestrial (land)
  16. Give an example of a classification of dominant organisms
    • The great barrier reef is an ecosystem with dominant organisms of coral.
    • Saltbush community is dominated by saltbushes (as well as other plants but salt bush being the most dominant)
  17. How are communities described by the CSIRO structure?
    They are given names based on their overall structural appearance rather than dominant species
  18. What are the main structural differences between a closed forest, open forest and woodland?
    Dominance of trees, shrub height and density, and grasses
  19. Give some examples of freshwater systems
    • Rivers
    • Lakes
    • Ponds
  20. What is taxonomy?
    Taxonomy is the process in naming the groups of life
  21. What are some useful way in classifying organisms?
    • External appearance
    • Internal anatomy
    • Genetic information
  22. What are the 5 Kingdoms?
    • Animalia
    • Plantae
    • Fungi
    • Protista
    • Monera
  23. What are Prokaryotes?
    • Monera kingdom
    • 'pro' means before & 'karyon' means nucleus
  24. What are Eukaryotes?
    • Plants, animals and fungi.
    • Eukaryote cells have a cell membrane, a 'true' nucleus and other specialised parts
  25. What is monera?
    Largest group of organisms
  26. How many cells do most Protista organisms have?
    • 1
    • There are protista organisms with many cells though, but they aren't as diverse
  27. Give some types of Protista organisms
    • Algae
    • Protazoa
  28. What are the 2 types of Plants there are?
    Vascular and non-vascular
  29. What phylum are non-vascular plants?
    Phylum: Bryophyta
  30. What type of vascular plants are there?
    • Seed (Gymnosperms mean seed only, or Angiosperms mean seed with flowers)
    • Seedless
  31. What is the difference between monocot and dicot flowers?
    • Monocot: 1 seed leef!!!! Also flower parts are in multiples of 3. Eg. Lilies, daffodils, palms and grass
    • Dicot: 2 seed leafs!!!!! Also flower parts occur in multiples of 4 or 5. Eg. carrots, trees, shrubs
  32. Phylums within Animalia and their main structural differences
    • P: Rotifera- wheel of cillia used for eating and moving
    • P: Porifera- no organs or nervous system, aquatic, asexual. Eg. Sponges
    • P: Cnidaria- Radial symmetry, stinging cells. Eg. jellyfish
    • P: platyhelminthes- flat body, mouth no anus. Eg. tapeworm
    • P: Nematoda- tiny, unsegmented roundworms. Eg. Hookworms
    • P: Annelida- cylindrical, move by shaping water in body. Eg. earthworms, leeches
    • P: Mollusca- mixed symmetry. Eg. snails, mussels, squid
    • P: Arthropoda- classes such as Crustacea, Arachnida, Insecta and Diplopoda
    • P: Echinodermata- radial symmetry. Eg. starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber
    • P:Chordata- classes such as Chorndrichthyes (cartilaginous fish), Osteichthyes (bony fish), Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia
  33. Classifications in order from broadest to narrowest in Kingdoms
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  34. Why can't hybrids be classified as a specie?
    Because there aren't enough of them. They are only the rare offspring from 2 different species
  35. What is the Binomial system?
    Naming species by 2 latinised words. One being the genus name and the other the specie
  36. Why are Species named using Latin?
    Because Latin is a dead language, meaning it wont change.
  37. What is a Dichotomous key?
    An identification key in which one brach leads to 2 branches at each step. Eg...Image Upload 2
Card Set
What the scientific method and classification is