1. Neurons
    Specialized cells of the nervous system, basic unit of the brain
  2. Synapses
    Connections between neurons, communication
  3. Dendrites
    Allow for neuron communication. Covered in fatty myelin sheath to improve the speed of the message
  4. Pruning
    When Redudant or unused neurons die off. Info can be relearned
  5. Neuroplasticity
    extent to whcih the brain organization is flexible. Allows for children to have a better chance at recovering from a brain injury.
  6. Sensorimotor Intelligence
    Ages birth to 2 yrs. Piagets Theory. Infants build schemes through sensory and motor exploration they learn object permanence(an object exists even when out of sight) and search error is typical (look in the last place)
  7. Fear of Strangers
    Stranger Anxiety occurs in 8-12 mts
  8. Separation Anxiety
    Bowleby: Secure, Avoidnat, Resistant, Disorganized
  9. Trust vs. Mistrust
    Erikson: first stage: Infants need to learn to feel like when they cry their caregivers willl respond. this is the basis of a relationship
  10. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    Ericksons second stage : Infants need to feel that they can succeed in tasks and find a sense of self. This is achieved by suitable guidance and resonable choices and putting the child in situations where they can succeed.
  11. Initiative vs. Guilt
    3-6yrs. Children are learning who they are through make believe play. This is how they discover who they want to become. Parents can induce excessive guilt wehn they demand too much self-control.
  12. Attachment
    • Ainsworth
    • When infants bond to caregivers
  13. Temperament
    Based off of reactivity, (speed and intensity of emotional arousal, attention and motor activitiy) and self-regulation(stratigies modifying reactivity)
  14. Goodness of Fit
    Thomas and Chess.. Combines genetics and environment to develop a theory on temperament. Genetic influences contribute to about half of individual differences and environmental influences focus on nutrition, caregiving, siblings, etc. thy focus on parenting to match your child's temperment
  15. Gross Motor Skills
    Crawling, standing, walking. Balance improves by age 2 and upper and lower body movements combine by age 5
  16. Fine motor skills
    Reaching and grasping Complex and are motor skills of the CNS Activities like dressing drawing and eating help refine
  17. Theory of Mind
    Meta-cognition: thinking about how we think. Our awareness and understanding of various aspects of thought
  18. Preoperational Though
    Piagets 2nd : 2-7yrs. There are gains in mental representation, make-believe, limitations in thinking: egocentric
  19. Egocentrism
    Failure to distinguish others views from one's own
  20. Irreversibility
    Cannot mentally revers a set of steps
  21. Centration
    Focus on one aspect and neglect others
  22. concervation
    the idea that even when outside appearances change, the object remains the same
  23. Seriation
    The ability to order objects according to characteristics (length or weight)
  24. Animism
    Believe that inanimate objects have life like qualities
  25. Scaffolding
    Vygotsky: Supporitn gthe child's learning through guided participation: what you help with
  26. Zone of proximal development
    The area which you can learn. The material is neither too easy or too hard they learn with scaffolding.. ie walking
  27. Opperant Conditiong
    Using rewards or punishments after a behavior occurs to influence that that behavior is either repeated or not
  28. Receptive Language
    Children Understand more than they can vocalize
  29. Expressive Language
    Talking about things
  30. Referential Language
    Refers to objects
  31. Private Speech
    Vygotsky: Children speak to themselves when they play-key part in language development
  32. Social referencing
    8to10 mts children take cues from the mother about how to react with new people. ex. friend vs stranger
  33. Nonorganic failure to thrive
    Emotional well being of children.. symptoms are wasted.. lack of parental love and apathy
  34. Physical change
    50% height gain and triple weight in the first year and 75% of birth height by age two
  35. Cognitive
    Language and thinking skills 75% of the adult brain weight by age 2.
  36. 1. Describe how language develops from birth to age 6. Use some specific examples and clearly show progression.
  37. Cooing- birth to 2 mos.
    • Babbling- to 6 mos (constants and vowels together.. ba ba ba da da)
    • Help them by: Joint attention, give and take, preverbal gestures.
    • First word is at the age 1ish
  38. Underextension
    Say dog- means only their dog
  39. Overextension
    Anything that has four legs is a dog
  40. holophrase
    single word that expresses a whole thought i.e DAD
  41. Telegraphic
    No connecting words only important ones ie car go= ride in car
  42. 1. Describe large and small motor development from birth to age 6. Use some specific examples and clearly show progression.
  43. Gross Motor Skill Improvement:
    • -Balance improvement
    • -gain smooth and rhythmic by age 2
    • -Upper and Lower body skills combine into more refined actions by age 5
    • -Greater speed and endurance
    • Fine Motor Skills:
    • -self help=dressing and eating
    • -drawing and painting
    • -Ex. Drawings (squiggly lines to stick figures and writing name)
    • -3 years old they try and balance on cement curbs
    • - Soccer- kicking but not always making contact
    • - Movements refined by activities like drawing, painting eating.
  44. Temperament
  45. Easy: 40%: cheerful, smiles a lot and easy to change and new
    • experiences
    • Difficult: 10%: has irregular daily routines, doesn’t adapt to change
    • well and very active
    • Slow-to-Warm: 15%: inactive, adjusts slowly to new experiences and
    • doesn’t like new Places
    • Unclassified: 35%: goes back and forth
  46. Bowlby Attachment
  47. -Preattachment phase: (birth to 6wks.) built in signals-grasping,
    • smiling, crying- brings baby in close contact with humans that comfort them.
    • -Attachment-in-the-Making: (6wks to 6-8mths) Infants respond
    • differently to a familiar face than a stranger.. build a sense of trust of the caregiver responding when they are signaled. But do not protest when separate from them.
    • -Clear- Cut Attachment Phase: (6mts to 2 years) Separation Anxiety-
    • becoming upset when their trusted caregiver leaves. It doesn’t always occur, Also they use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore.
    • -Formation of a reciprocal relationship (2 yrs and on): Growth that
    • influences the parents coming and going and to predict their return. Understanding that they will be back
  48. Ainsworth Attachment
  49. Secure Attachment: When the Infant uses the parent as a secure base, when parent leaves they become upset and seek contact as soon as the parent returns and is perfectly fine then.
    • Avoidant Attachment: When Infants seem unresponsive when the parent is there, and not distressed when they leave and during the return they are slow to greet the parent
    • Resistant Attachment: Before separation, the infant seeks closeness to the parent and doesn’t explore. They are distressed when the parent leaves and on return they are clinging and angry, can’t be comforted easily.Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment: Reflects the GREATEST insecurity. At reunion the infant is confused and shows contradictory behavior like looking away while the parent tries to comfort them.
  50. Vygotsky doesnt talk about..
  51. -Lacks: doesn’t discuss how motor, perceptual, attention, memory and
    problem solving skills contribute to higher cognitive processes
  52. Physical indicatiors children are growing well
  53. Physical indicators of healthy growth is both their weight and height. At age
    two the brain is 75% its adult weight. To measure brain size doctors take a head circumference measurement. Teeth growing.. Regular “well baby checkups” and eating patterns
  54. help children develop intelluctuall yby
  55. Scaffolding, Guided participation=establishes autonomy, Reading= improves language skills, Developmentally appropriate activities, Frequent Conversations with Child
  56. 1. How can parents and care providers help children’s language develop?
  57. Things that can help children develop their language skills:
    • -Full attention, carry on conversations
    • -Joint Attention: child attends to the same object as the caregiver
    • -Gestures, pointing and saying the word
    • With Infants:
    • -Coo and babble back to the baby
    • -Establish joint connection: physical and cognitive
    • -Use Child Direction Speech
    • -Books for Learning with pictures
    • -Social Games (Peek a Boo or where is..)
    • With Toddlers:
    • -Play Make-Believe
    • -Frequent Conversations with them
    • -Read often and talk about books
  58. Nutritional needs
  59. Need High quality foods, their growth rate will decrease therefore their
    appetite will decrease also. Also they will become wary of foods and eat the way their mentors do.
  60. diet and activity affect brain
  61. Low SES children are less active and on average ½ inch shorter than other
    children. Nutritious foods help develop the myelin sheath on the dendrites in the brain which generates more synapses and quicker connections ex milk.
  62. Why they eat less as they grow
  63. At the age five, the child has a decreased appetite because they don’t need
    as many calories because their growing is slowing down, yet they need high quality food with nutrients. Also they are becoming wary of new foods so these need to be introduced slowly. And they are starting to imitate others’ food choices, like eating what mom or dad does. Their stomach is small and can hold about 1 tablespoon of food. Their stomach is about the size of their fist at that time.
  64. Play
  65. Make Believe (Imagination) - Vygotsky believed that this was the ideal
    • social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood. They create imaginary situations and learn to follow internal ideas and social rules rather than their immediate impulses. They learn social rules and appropriate behavior. It’s a unique way that children try out new and challenging activities.
    • Where is… the Doggie?- Helps to learn words and see pictures at the same time. Also Peek-a-boo helps develop early learning skills as well.
  66. Child care vs academic
  67. Child-Care-Center: Child selects from a wide variety of activities and play
    • They learn to play and socialize with others
    • Academic: The teachers structure the learning and have formal lessons.
    • They learn the alphabet and colors and it’s almost like school
  68. Human growth vs. development
  69. Human Growth is a physical things like height and weight, where as
    development refers to cognitive and social skills.
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