geol 106 unit 2

  1. angle of repose
    • steepest angle at which material remains stable
    • unconsolidated and granular
    • larger, angular particles maintain steeper slopes
    • 25-40 deg
  2. chemical weathering
    chemical trasnformatio (decompostition) into new conpound(s)
  3. creep
    gradual downhill movement of regolith
  4. debris flow
    • rapid mass wasting
    • large amounts of water
    • follow channels/canyons
  5. differential weathering
    • masses of rocks don't weather uniform uniformly
    • caused by mineral makeup, degree of jointing, climate
  6. earthflow
    • saturated by rain/snow
    • viscous and slow
    • forms on hillsides
    • clay and silt
  7. eluviation
    washing out of fine soil components
  8. erosion
    physical removal of material by water, wind, ice
  9. exfolitaion dome
    slabs that separate due to continuous weathering
  10. external processes
    • occur at/near Earth's surface
    • powered by energy form sun
    • weathering, mass wasting, erosion
    • break rock and move debirs
  11. fall
    freefall of detached parts
  12. flow
    moves as viscous fluid
  13. frost wedging
    • water gets into cracks >
    • freezes and expands>
    • inc pressure>
    • enlarges fracture
    • common in mntns with daily freeze/thaw
    • temeperate climates
  14. horizon
    layers of soil
  15. internal processes
    • powered by energy from earth's core
    • mntn buliding, volcanic activity
  16. lahar
    debris flow of volcanic material
  17. leaching
    depletion of soluble materials from upper level
  18. mass wasting
    gravity causing rock/soil to move downward
  19. parent material
    • source of weathered material that forms soil
    • dominant in young soil
    • affects weathering, soil formation, fertility
  20. permafrost
    permanently frozen ground
  21. regolith
    rock and mineral fragments that cover earth's surface produced by weathering
  22. rockslide
    • sudden rapid movement when detached sediment/bedrock slides down
    • occurs in high mntns
  23. secondary enrichment
    • concentrates mior amounts of metals into economically valuable concentrations
    • EITHER percolation removes undesired material leaving enriched upper zone OR percolation removes desired material and deposits it at lower zone
  24. sheeting
    igneous rock exposed by weathering and sheets of it break off
  25. slide
    material remains coherent and moves along defined surface
  26. slump
    slide on a curved surface
  27. soil
    • life supporting material
    • mineral, organic material, water, air
  28. soil profile
    vertical cross section through all layers
  29. soil taxonomy
    classification system based on chemical.physical properties
  30. soil texture
    • proportions of different particle sizes
    • influence ability to reatin/transmit water
    • rarely one particle size; textural categories
  31. solifluction
    • very very slow mass wasting
    • saturated with water (but water can't escape)
  32. solum
    • true soil
    • active and living roots, plant and animal life
    • O>B horizons
  33. speroidal weathering
    • corners expose greater surface area and are weathered
    • forms round rocks
    • chemical weathering
  34. talus slope
    piles of loosed rocks at base of mntn
  35. weathering
    physical breakdown (disintigration) and cchemical breakdown (decomposition) of rocks mear earth's surface
  36. alluvial fan
    high gradient meets bread flat plain
  37. alluvium
    stream-deposited material
  38. aquifer
    permeable rock/sediments that transmits groundwater
  39. aquitard
    impermeable layers that hinder.prevent groundwater movement
  40. arteisan well
    water rises in well above level of original encounter
  41. backswamp
    marches where water can't flow up the levee and into the river
  42. bar
    channel deposits composed of sand and gravel
  43. base level
    lower limit to how deep a stream can erode
  44. bed load
    stream's load that is too heavy so it moves along the bottom
  45. braided stream
    complex network of converging and diverging channels
  46. capacity
    max load a stream can carry
  47. cavern
    underground chambers of eroded limestone
  48. competence
    max size particles a stream can carry
  49. cone of depression
    depression in water table resulting from drawdown
  50. cut bank
    zone of active erosion on outside of meander
  51. cutoff
    short channel segment cutting off and reconnecting meander
  52. delta
    deposits formed when stream enters calm water
  53. dendritc pattern
    irregularly branching tributary system
  54. discharge
    volume of water flowing past a certain point of a stream ina given unit of time
  55. dissolved load
    solution of dissolved materials in water
  56. distributary
    main channel divides into smaller ones
  57. divide
    imaginary line separating two drainage basins
  58. drainage basin
    land area that contirbutes water to a river system
  59. drawdown
    lowering of water table due to wells
  60. evapotranspitation
    amount of water evaporated and transpired by plants
  61. flood
    overflow of stream water when water exceeds capacity of channel
  62. floodplain
    • flat valley floor covered with alluvium
    • lateral erosion caused by shifting of meanders
  63. geyser
    • intermittent hotsprings or fountains
    • columns of water ejected with great force in various intervals
  64. gradient
    • slop of stream channel
    • vertical drop of stream ove specified distance
  65. groundwater
    water within zone of saturation
  66. hot spring
    water 6-9deg C warmer than mean annual air temp
  67. hydrologic cycle
    unending circulation of earth'c water supply
  68. incised meander
    meandering channel in steep narrow valley
  69. infiltration
    water that soaks into ground
  70. karst topography
    • landscapes shaped by dissolving power of groundwater
    • sinkholes
  71. laminar flow
    slow moving straight line paths
  72. meander
    streams with sweeping bends
  73. natural levee
    sediment bordering channels built by successive floods
  74. oxbow lake
    abandoned bend in meander
  75. permeability
    ability to transmit fluid
  76. point bar
    crescent shaped accumulation of sand/gravel deposited on the inside of a meander
  77. porosity
    volume of open spaces in rock/soil
  78. radial pattern
    stream diverges in spoke-like pattern
  79. rectangular pattern
    • right angle bends
    • bedrock crisscrossed by joints
  80. runoff
    surplus water flowing over surface
  81. saltation
    jump/skip movement
  82. settling velocity
    • speed at which particle falls through still fluid
    • larger particles settle faster
    • denser particles settle faster
  83. sinkhole
    depressions in land
  84. sorting
    • mechanism by which particles of various sizes are separated
    • particles of the same size are deposited together
  85. spring
    natural flow of groundwater resulting when water table intersects ground surface
  86. stream valley
    channel and surrounding terain that contibutes to water in stream
  87. suspended load
    sediment suspended in water
  88. transpiration
    water relased by plants into atmosphere
  89. trellis pattern
    rectanuglar pattern where tributaties are parallel to each other
  90. turbulent flow
    water moving in eratic swirling motion
  91. unsaturated zone
    area above water table not saturated
  92. water table
    upper limit of groundwater
  93. well
    hole bored into zone of saturation
  94. yazoo tributary
    a tributary stream that flow parallel to stream because it can't breach the levee
  95. zone of saturation
    open space in rock and sediment filled with water
  96. aftershock
    • adjustments following a large earthquake
    • generate smaller earthquakes
  97. asthenosphere
    • soft weak layer of upper mantle
    • slightly viscous
  98. body wave
    • waves that travel through earth's interior
    • s-waves and p-waves
  99. core
    • innermost part of earth
    • iron-nickel rich
    • 3500 km thick
  100. crust
    thin rocky outer layer or earth
  101. earthquake
    vibration of earth produced by rapid release of energy
  102. elastic rebound
    vibration from earthquake
  103. epicenter
    location on surface directly above source of earthquake
  104. fault
    large fracture in earth's crust
  105. fault creep
    gradual fault displacement
  106. focus
    source or earthquake beneath surface
  107. foreshock
    • small earthquakes preceding major earthquake
    • days or years
  108. inner core
    • solid
    • 1200km radius
  109. intensity
    measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale based on damage
  110. liquefaction
    unconsolidated materials saturated with water move with earthquake
  111. lithosphere
    • crust and upper mantle
    • brittle
    • 100km thick
  112. lower mantle
    • very hot
    • gradual flow
    • 2300 km thick
  113. magnitude
    amount of energy released at source or earthquake
  114. mercalli intensity scale
    Ca bulidings as its standard
  115. moho
    boundary between crust and mantle
  116. moment magnitude
    • derived from amount of displacemnet that occurs at fault zone
    • more accurate measurement of magnitude
  117. outer core
    • very hot
    • liquid
    • 2300 km think
  118. primary wave
    • push pull wave
    • fastest
    • can trasnmit across earth (through solids)
  119. richter scale
    • based on amplitude of waves recorded on seismogram
    • estimates realtive size of earthquake
  120. secondary wave
    • moves perpendicular to propogation
    • can't transmit through liquid
  121. tsunami
    seismic sea wave
  122. seismology
    study of earthquake waves
  123. seismogram
    records revealing seismic waves as elastic energy
  124. surface wave
    seismic waves that travel along crust
  125. seismograph
    intrument that records earthquake waves
Card Set
geol 106 unit 2