Condition of inadequate levels of oxygen in the blood?
What events can lead to hypoxemia?
Hypovolemia, hypoventilation, and interruption of arterial flow can lead to hypoxemia
Tachypnea, tachycardia, restlessness, pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, elevated blood pressure, symptoms of repiratory distress (use of accessories, nasal flaring, tracheal tugging, adventitious lung sound) are...
early OR late signs of hypoxemia?
Confusion and stupor, cyanosis of skin and mucous membranes, bradypnea, bradycardia, hypotension and cardiac dysrhythmias are...
early OR late signs of hypoxemia?
This is a low-flow oxygen delivery system that delivers oxygen concentatrations of 24-40% at a flow rate of 1 to 6 L/min...?
This is a low-flow oxygen delivery system that delivers oxygen concentrations of 40-60% at a flow rate of 5-8 L/min?
Simple face mask
This is a low-flow oxygen delivery system that delivers oxygen concentrations of 60-75 at a flow rate of 6-11 L/min?
Partial rebreather mask
This is a low-flow oxygen delivery system that delivers oxygen concentrations of 80-95% at a flow rate of 10-15 L/min and prevents room air from entering the mask?
This is a high-flow oxygen delivery system that delivers oxygen concentrations of 80-95% at a flow rate of 10-15 L/min and best suited for clients with chronic lung disease?
Define preload? What may cause preload to increase?
Preload is the volume of blood left in the ventricle after diastolic pressure. You may see preload increase in hypervolemia or with regurgiation of cardiac valves
Define afterload? What may cause afterload to increase?
After load is the pressure the left ventricle must overcome to circulate blood. You may see afterload increase in hypertension or vasoconstriction. When afterload increases = CO increases
List some S&Sx of right-sided heart failure?
fatigue, peripheral venous pressure, ascites, enlarged liver & spleen, distended jugular veins, anorexia and complains of GI distress, swelling in hands & fingers, dependent edema
When a person is experiencing right-sided heart failure what is occuring?
Right-sided or right ventricular (RV) heart failure usually occurs as a result of left-sided failure. When the left ventricle fails, increased fluid pressure is, in effect, transferred back through the lungs, ultimately damaging the heart's right side. When the right side loses pumping power, blood backs up in the body's veins (systemic circulation). This usually causes swelling in the legs and ankles.
When a person is experiencing left-sided hear failure what is occuring?
In left-sided or left ventricular (LV) heart failure, the left side of the heart must work harder to pump the same amount of blood.
There are two types of left-sided heart failure. Drug treatments are different for the two types.
Systolic failure: The left ventricle loses its ability to contract normally. The heart can't pump with enough force to push enough blood into circulation.
Diastolic failure: The left ventricle loses its ability to relax normally (because the muscle has become stiff). The heart can't properly fill with blood during the resting period between each beat.
Obstructed blood flow through the valves is called? For example...when ________ occurs in the emilunar valves (aortic and pulmonic) the adjacent ventricles have to work harder to move the ventricular blood volume beyond the obstructed valve?
Obstructed blood flow through valves is called STENOSIS
When something other than the SA node acts as the pacemaker of the heart (AV node), there is chaotic, irregular atrial activity resulting in an irregular ventricular response. This can be caused by aging, calcification of the SA node, or changes in myocardial blood supply and is called?
When the rhythm of the hear is slightly irregular the blood flow is not going anywhere, and is caused by changes in the normal pacemaker of the heart such as decrease in blood flow, ischemia, or embolus...this is called?