What is the name of the ankle joint? The ankle is what type of joint and articulates with what?
- It is a hinge type of joint, which articulates with the tibia and fibula (creates a square socket)
- Called the Malleolar mortise
What are the 3 lateral ankle ligaments?
- Anterior talofibular
- Posterior talofibular
Ankle sprains are caused by what?
Forceful inversion, affects the 3 lateral ankle ligaments
Medial ligaments of the ankle?
- Anterior tibiotalar
- Posterior tibiotalar
Clinical: What is a "Potts fracture"?
A dislocation of the ankle caused by forcible eversion
of the foot (THINK FORCEFUL EVERSION)
- -avulsion of the medial malleolus
- -avulsion of the lateral malleolus
- -fracture of the fibula above the inferior syndesmosis
- -rupture of the anterior tibiofibular lig.
Dorsiflexion of the ankle is provided by what?
- the anterior compartment muscules of your leg!!
- ( Tibialis anterior, Extensor hallcius longus, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis tertius)
Plantarflexion of the ankle is provided by what?
the posterior compartment leg muscles (GASTROC, SOLEUS, FLEX DIG LONGUS, FLEX HALLUCIS LONGUS)
What runs behind the medial malleolus?
- "Tom, Dick and Nervous Harry"
- Tibialis posterior
- Flexor Digitorum Longus
- Posterior Tibial Artery
- Tibial Nerve
- Flexor Hallucis Longus
Blood supply to your ankle?
- Branches from Fibular and Ant/Post Tibial Arteries
Innervation of your ankle?
Tibial and Deep Fibular Nerves
What are the two arches of your foot?
Longutidinal Arch and Traverse Arch
What is the function of your arches?
to distribute weight over pedal platform, act as shock springboards! and adapt to changes in surface contour
Your arches of your foot are made of what?
Ligaments, Muscle Tendons, and Bones.
Longitudinal arch of your foot consists of what?
- You have a medial and lateral longitudinal arch
- A medial arch (higher, **more important!!!)
- -Medial arch consists of calcaneus, talus** (most impt in longitudinal arch) 3 cuneiforms, medial 3 metatarsals
- Lateral arch (flatter)
- -consists of calcaneus, cuboid, lateral metatarsals (lateral 2 digits)
What is your traverse arch?
- Consists of cuboid, cuneiforms, bases of metatarsal
- Maintained by passive and active factors
What are the passive factors of the arches of your foot?
- Think SHAPE of BONES + LIGAMENTS
- Shape of bones
- Plantar aponeurosis
- Long plantar ligament
- Plantar calcneocuboid ligament
- Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament
What are the DYNAMIC factors of your arches of your foot?
- THINK intrinsic MUSCLES of FOOT +TENDONS inserting into foot
- Intrinsic muscles of the foot
- Tendons inserting onto foot: flexor hallucis longus & flexor digitorum longus (longitudinal arch)
- fibularis longus & tibialis posterior (Transverse Arch)
What the hell is Pes Planus?
- = FLAT FEET
- Normal in youn children (under 3)
- Two Types:
- 1.)Flexible: lack of medial arch (more common)
- Medial arch bears more wt. flat arch. appears normal when not-weight bearing....so if you were sitting your arch looks normal
- 2.) Rigid: Flat feet all the time, whether weight bearing or non-weight bearing)
- -Aquired, Talus can be displaced inferomedially---more prominent talus
Clinical: What is Clubfoot?
- Congenital condition, bilateral 50% of the cases, more common in boys
- Involves the Subtalar JointAnkle is plantarflexed, foot is inverted, forfoot is turned towards the midline (adducted)
- Painful to walk
- Rx: surgical clipping of calcaneal tendon = tenotomy or rehab with casts or braces (mia hamm and troy aikman had this)