ch. 6 nutrition

  1. cheif fxn of fat
    energy storage
  2. Cushions skin
    Thermoregulation -
    insulation blanket to
    reduce heat loss/maintain
    body temperature
     Gives shape to the body
    visible fat
  3. In every cell membrane
    Component of myelin
    Brain tissue is rich in fat
    Shock absorber to protect
    Constituent of hormones
    and biochemicals
     Vitamin D
    Invisible fat
  4. Usefullness of fats in foods
    • palatability
    • satiety (stay full longer)
    • better aroma
  5. Fat soluable vitamins
  6. 3 lipids
    • Triglycerides (fats and oils)
    • Phospholipids
    • Sterols
  7. are lipids soluable in water?
  8. are lipids soluable in organic compounds?
  9. Simple lipids
    • Fats – solid at room temperature
    • Oils – liquid at room temperature
    • Contain only fatty acids and glycerol
  10. Fats that make adipose tissue and burn for energy
    95% of all lipids in foods and the human body; chief form of fat in foods
  11. Act as tiny rowboats ferrying hormones and fat soluble vitamins through blood and across cell membranes
  12. Fat and alcohol compounds with no calories
    Structure similar to cholesterol
    Ex: vitamin D, testosterone, cholesterol
  13. Breakdown of triglycerrides
    three fatty acids and a glyceride
  14. are triglycerides saturated or unsaturated?
  15. fxns of tryglyccerides
    • Energy source and reserve
    • Insulation and protection
    • Carrier of fat-soluble vitamins
  16. An organic compound, three carbons long Serves as the backbone for triglycerides
  17. Organic acids composed of carbon chains
    of various lengths
    Each has an acid end and hydrogen
    attached to all of the carbon atoms of the
    Differ on the basis of length and degree of
    Fatty acids
  18. Sources of omega-3 fatty acids
    • Soybean, canola, walnut, flaxseed oils
    • Salmon, tuna, mackerel
  19. Sources of omega-6 fatty acids
    • Vegetable oils
    • Nuts and seeds
  20. Every available bond from the
    carbons is holding a hydrogen
    Saturated fatty acid
  21. Contains one point of
    • Monounsaturated fatty
    • acid (MUFA)
  22. Contains two or more points of
    • Polyunsaturated fatty acid
    • (PUFA)
  23. Contain only one double bond
  24. MUFA's do what to HDL, LDL, tryglycerides, and VLDL
    increase HDL and lower the rest
  25. Sources of MUFA's
    • Olive oil,
    • canola oil,
    • avocados,
    • pecans,
    • almonds,
    • peanuts,
    • peanut oil
  26. Contain two or more double bonds
  27. PUFA's found in
    • Corn oil, fish, nuts, seeds, canola oil,
    • sunflower oil, safflower oil
  28. What do PUFAs do to cholesterol and LDL
    lower them
  29. Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids
    belong to this family
  30. Why are trans/cis fats added to food
    to keep them from spoiling...resist oxidation
  31. how much trans fat in margarin
  32. Component of cell membranes
     Lecithin and Sphingomyelin
     Lipid transport as part of lipoproteins
    Food sources
     Egg yolks, liver, soybeans, peanuts
  33. Component of cell membranes
    Precursor to other substances
     Sterol hormones
     Vitamin D
     Bile acids
     Made in the liver
    Food sources
     Found only in animal foods
     Forms major parts of plaques that narrow arteries in
     The underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes
  34. liver uses cholesterol for what?
    bile production
  35. cholesterol fxns
    • Structural component of all cell
    • membranes
    • Enables nerve cells to send/receive
    • messages
    • Precursor for sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone), aldosterone, and bile acids
    • Building block for Vit D
    • Enables gallbladder to make bile acids,digestive chemicals for fat and fat soluble vitamin absorption
  36. Where can you get cholesterol?
    animal products
  37. the average person has how many fat cells?
    40 billion
  38. excess fat is stored in
  39. Without CHO, the incomplete breakdown of fat produces ketones through
  40. With no gallbaldder what do you have to reduce
    fat intake
  41. split fatty acids from glycerol
  42. ?%of dietary fat and ?% of dietary
    cholesterol is absorbed
    • 95%
    • 10-15%
  43. Once absorbed into the lymphatic system, fats are packaged with protein into
  44. Chylomicrons transport triglycerides to fat depots in the.. (3)
    • Muscles
    • Breasts
    • Insulating fat layer under the skin
  45. Serve as transport vehicles for lipids in blood and lymph
  46. major types of lipoproteins
    • chylomicrons,
    • VLDLs,
    • LDLs, and
    • HDLs
  47. Carry triglycerides and other lipids made in the liver to the body cells for their use
    Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)
  48. Transport cholesterol and other lipids to body tissues
    Made from VLDL
    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
  49. Carry cholesterol from body cells to the liver for disposal
     Acts like Pac-Man
    High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
  50. Lipoproteins and
    Heart Disease Risk
    Risk factors that cannot be changed 3
    • Increasing age
    • Being male
    • Family history of premature heart disease
  51. Which raises blood cholesteral more, sat. food fats and trans fats or food cholesterol?
    sat. food fats and trans fats
  52. What is linoleic acid
    omega 6
  53. What is linolenic acid
    omega 3
  54. The only PUFA's that cannot be synethesized by the body
    omega 3 and 6
  55. eicosanoids
    compounds that regulate body functions
    Made by?
    Omega 3 and 6
  56. Provide raw material for eicosanoids
    Serve as parts of cell membranes
    Contribute lipids to brain and nerves
    Promote normal growth and vision
    Maintain outer structures of skin/protect from
    moisture loss
    Help regulate metabolism
    Support immune cell functions
    Linolenic and linoleic acid
  57. Necessary for growth, reproduction,
    and skin integrity
    Essential fatty acid (must come from diet)
    Found primarily in:
     Safflower oil, sunflower oil, corn oil,
    sesame oil
    omega 6
  58. A polyunsaturated fatty acid
    Can be used to produce other omega-3 fatty acids
    Include eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic
    (DCA) acids
    omega 3
  59. single greatest contributor
    of saturated fat in the diet
  60. Overconsumption of Fat is
    Implicated in…
    • Obesity
    • Hyperlipidemia (elevated blood lipids
    • and triglycerides)
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Fatty liver
    • Some cancers
    •  1/3rd of deaths due to cancer are attributed to
    • diet and physical activity
  61. effects of too little dietary fat
    • Fat malabsorption (cystic fibrosis, inflammatory
    • bowel disease)
    • Very low fat diets (<10% calories from fat)
    • Premature infants
    • Severe alcoholics
    • Anorexics
  62. Effects of Too Little Dietary Fat
    Deficiency symptoms may occur after a few weeks
    • Dry, scaly skin
    • Hair loss
    • Impaired growth
    • Impaired wound healing
    • Visual impairment
    • Impaired reproductive ability
  63. Dietary guidlines for fat
    • Choose a diet that Provides 20%-35% of its calories from fat
    • Keeps saturated fat intake below 10% of caloric intake
    • Keeps trans fat intake below 1% of calories
    • Substitute MUFA’s or PUFA’s for saturated and trans fat
    • Contains fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
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ch. 6 nutrition