Speech Midterm

  1. meaning
    • heart of communication
    • the significance we attach to phenomena such as words actions people objects and events
  2. perception
    active process of selection organizing and interpreting people objects events situations and activities
  3. self-fulfilling prophecy
    one acts in ways consistent to how one has learned to perceive oneself
  4. constructivism
    the theory that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata
  5. prototype
    knowledge structure that defines the best or most representative example of some category
  6. personal constructs
    mental yardsticks that allow us to position people and situations along bipolar dimensions of judement
  7. stereotypes
    predictive generalizations about people and situations
  8. scripts
    • guides to action based on what we've experienced and observed
    • a sequence of activities that defines what we and others expected to do in specific situations
  9. inerpretation
    subjective process of explaining perceptions to assign meaning to them
  10. attributions
    explanations of why things happen and why people act as they do
  11. self-serving bias
    • can distort our perceptions
    • leads us to take excessive credit for what we do welland to abdicate responsibility for what we do poorly
  12. culture
    consists of beliefs values understandings practices and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a number of people
  13. standpoint theory
    claims that a culture includes a number of social communities that have different degrees of social status and privilege
  14. cognitive complexity
    refers to the number of constructs used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to shape perceptions
  15. person-centered perception
    • reflects cognitive complexity because it entails abstract thinking and broad ranges of schemata
    • the ability to perceive another as a unique and distinct individual
  16. empathy
    ability to feel with another person-- to feel what he or she feels
  17. schemata
    • cognitive structures we use to organize and interpret experiences
    • four types of schemata are: prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes and scripts
  18. direct definition
    communications that explicitly tells us who we are by labeling us and our behaviors
  19. attachment styles
    patterns of parenting that teaches us who we are and others are and how to relate to others
  20. identity scripts
    • another way family members communicate who we are and should be
    • rules for how we are supposed to live and who we are supposed to be
  21. fearful attachment style
    dismissive attachment style
    • if the primary caregiver communicates in negative rejecting or abusive ways to the child
    • a caregiver who is disinterested rejecting or abusive may lead to this
  22. social comparission
    involves comparing ourselves with others to form judgements of our own talents attractiveness abilities leadership skills and so forth
  23. particular others
    the viewpoints of specific people who are significant to us
  24. reflected appraisal
    we see ourselves in terms of the appraisals reflected in others eyes
  25. perspective of the generalized other
    the collection of rules roles and attitudes endorsed by the whole social community in which we live
  26. self- sabotage
    telling ourselves we are no good we'll never learn something there's no point in trying to change
  27. uppers
    people who communicate positively about us and who reflect positive appraisals of our self- worth
  28. downers
    people who communicate negatively about us and our self- worth
  29. vultures
    • extreme downers
    • they not only communicate negative images of us but also attack our self concepts
  30. ego boundaries
    • define where the self stops and rest of the world begins
    • this is the beginnings of self concepts: the realization that one is separate entity
  31. communication
    the interchange of thoughts and ideas in order to obtain information
  32. five levels of communication
    • 1. intrapersonal
    • 2. interpersonal
    • 3. small group
    • 4. organizational
    • 5. mass media
  33. intrapersonal communication
    communication within the self
  34. interpersonal
    dyadic communication between 2 people
  35. small group
    three or more (most common)
  36. organizational communication
    (millersville) formal
  37. mass media communication
    technology, papers etc.
  38. Filters of communication
    • culture
    • gender
    • age
    • ethnicity
    • sexual orientation
    • economic background
    • religion
    • educational background
  39. how do we communicate?
    all forms of communication start with an idea
  40. Purpose of speaking
    • to entertain
    • to inform
    • to persuade
  41. mass media
    electronic or mechanical channels of delivering one to many communications
  42. social media
    means of connecting and interacting actively
  43. gatekeeper
    person or group who decides which messages pass through the gates of media to reach consumers
  44. Informative speech 5 main ideas
    • purpose
    • topic
    • time
    • research/resources
    • audience
  45. thesis
    foundation of a speech
  46. 3 types of audience analysis
    • demographic- age gender
    • psychological
    • environmental- ethnicity cultural economic status
  47. environmental analysis
    • ethnicity
    • psychological needs, safety, love,self- actualization
    • need for independence
    • need to change
    • dominance
  48. introduction
    • grab attention of the audience
    • give thesis
  49. ways to grab attention
    • humor
    • statistics
    • questions
    • quotes
    • examples
    • formal
    • non verbal
    • startle/ shock
  50. ethos establisment
    "heres why you need to hear this"
  51. conclusion
    • sum up
    • ending devices
  52. organizational patterns of main points
    • chronological
    • historical
    • spacial
    • sequential
    • cause/effect
    • problem/solution
    • topical or categorical
  53. types of proof
    • facts
    • statistics
    • testimony
    • examples
    • narrative
    • self
  54. types of speeches
    • manuscript- reading
    • memorized
    • impromptu
    • extemporaneous
  55. presenting a speech what do you need?
    • appearance
    • posture
    • movement
    • gestures
    • facial expressions
    • eye contact
  56. paralanguage
    vocal variety
  57. vocal variety, characterizations of our voice
    • pitch
    • volume
    • rate
    • quality or tone
  58. 3 p's
    • plan
    • practice
    • present
Card Set
Speech Midterm
Chapter 2