Hist Arch Exam 2

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    • San Pietro Basilica
    • Vatican City / Rome
    • 1506-1656
    • Bramante, Michelangelo, della Porta, Vignola, Maderna, Bernini

    • -Bronze baldacchino over St. Peter's tomb with columns from Constantine's basilica, which were from the Temple of Solomon: connection between the Holy Land and St. Peter's
    • -Cathedra Petri: chair of St. Peter
    • -Scala Regia: Regal stair; tapers in width from top to bottom
    • -Piazza Obliqua: actually two semicircles and a square with a freestanding Tuscan colonnade
    • -Piazza Retta: trapezoidal plaza; flanking colonnade gets shorter toward church to make the cathedral proper seem more vertical
    • -Not facing East, as was tradition, but facing West
    • -Axis lines up with the obelisk in the center of the plaza
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    • Il Gesu
    • Rome
    • 1568-75
    • Vignola & della Porta

    • -Created for the Jesuits: missionaries and educators
    • -Transverse barrel-vaulted chapels instead of aisles with columns flanking a longitudinal barrel vaulted nave
    • -strong axial emphasis and three-dimensionality of elements on the west facade
    • -Classical orders replace Florentine subdivisions on the facade
    • -Interior was originally plain but now decorated from 17th century endeavor
    • -Wall-pillar church
    • -Other side of entrance, engaged columns support a triangular pediment, which is framed by a segmental pediment supported by flanking pilasters
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    • San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
    • Rome
    • 1638-67
    • Borromini

    • -Built on one of the grand routes Sixtus had built for the city
    • -Undulating oval in plan with a long axis leading to the main ltar
    • -Curving side walls swell to form side chapels which evoke a stretched Greek-cross plan
    • -Conceived from interlocking geometric figures
    • -Reliance on geometry instead of Renaissance arithmetic
    • -Pendentives above entablature reduce plan to an oval drum supporting an oval dome coffered with octagons, hexagons, and trinitarian crosses with an oval occulus in the cetner
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    • San Ivo alla Sapienza
    • Rome
    • 1642-1660
    • Borromini

    • -Lantern tower symbolic of the papal crown and a conch shell (corona papal)
    • -Built under the patronage of Urban VIII, who was a member of the Barbarini family; used the shape of a flying bee in the floor plan to glorify the family symbol
    • -Spatial fluidity later influenced modernism
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    • San Andrea al Quirinale
    • Rome
    • 1653-70
    • Bernini

    • -Small oval plan
    • -Entry between corinthian pilasters supporting a pediment
    • -Convex curving portico supported by ionic columns
    • -Volute-like buttresses support dome on exterior
    • -Architecture as theatre
    • -Scenographic facade
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    • Vienna, AUSTRIA
    • 1714 - 1723

    • -Palace for the Hapsburgs
    • -Variation on Baroque themes of centralization and -extension without Cartesian geometry
    • -Means "Rising landscape with a view"
    • -Transformation of gardens to enclosed spaces: more independent, intimate, private
    • -Fusion of Gothic membrane-like walls and Italian thick walls
    • -Fairy tale
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    • Chapel Smirice
    • Bohemia (Czech Republic)
    • 1700-13
    • Dientzenhofer

    • -Stands as a carved object instead of a built structure
    • -Combines Guarini's ideas of spatial juxtaposition (San Lorenzo) with the Central European system of wall-pillars
    • -Elongated octagon with internally convex sides, undulating surface as like an organism
    • -First example of a reduced central church
    • -Answer to desire synthesis of centralized and longitudinal space; introduction of wall-pillars
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    • Vierzehnheiligen
    • Staffelstein
    • 1743-63
    • Neumann

    • -Basilican ground plan transformed into circles and ovals
    • -Oval overhead vaults
    • -Shape of a Latin-cross
    • -Infinite, luminous space with series of oval baldacchins
    • -Spatial syncopation
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    • Die Wies
    • Steingaden
    • 1746-54
    • Zimmerman

    • -"Wies" means "meadow"
    • -Wanted to try and be embedded in the landscape-----Volume of church repeats the shape of the hills and appears a humanized and spiritualized natural element
    • -Walls as a light membrane; freely-shaped windows
    • -Rococo architecture: lighter colors
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    • Church for Benedictine Convent
    • Neresheim - Swabia
    • 1746-1790
    • Neumann

    • -Large oval crossing supported by four paired columns
    • -Oval transept arms (centered on long axis)
    • -Nave - Two cross-axial ovals set tangent to each other
    • -Width is narrowed toward the alter
    • -Walls – double layered plane
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    • Chateau
    • Vaux-le-Vicomte
    • 1657-61
    • Le Vau, Le Brun, Le Norte

    • -Emphasis on more windows than wall
    • -Main element: longitudinal axis forms the way through the gardens; infinite space
    • -Chateau is a freestanding block with pavillions at each corner
    • -An axial entrance across a moat to the terrance and through a triple-arched entrance leads into vestibule
    • -Center oval salon opened up on all side
    • -Black Gate
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    • Chateau et Jardin
    • Versailles, France
    • 1626-1710
    • Le Vau, Le Brun, Le Notre, J.H. Mansart

    • -Extension of an old hunting lodge on swampy land
    • -1400 fountains (had to redirect river to supply water to 37000 acres of land)
    • -Town and gardens arranged as if radiating from the palace
    • -Hall of mirrors continuing idea of infinity found in gardens
    • -Gold gate
    • -Stairway to heaven
  13. What is considered the starting event of the Baroque?
    -The Counter Reformation: Martin Luther's nailing of the 95 Theses to the door of All Saint's Church in 1517
  14. Council of Trent
    -1545, aiming to spread the prestige of the church and bring members back
  15. Characteristics of Baroque
    • Didactic, theatrical, dynamic, dramatic style
    • Concave vs. convex
    • Preference for axial and centralized spaces
    • Ellipses and ovals
  16. Where was Baroque prevalent?
    • Italy, France, German states (Bavaria, Saxony, Franconia), Austria, Bohemia, Spain, England, and Russia
    • Influence of the Jesuits in South America
  17. Gesamtkunstwerk
    "All encompassing culture" -Applied to the Baroque movement
  18. Where were the terms Baroque, Style Classique, Late Baroque, and Rococo used?
    • -Baroque: Italy, Rome and Torino
    • -Style Classique: France, particularly Paris and the surrounding vicinity
    • -Late Baroque: Austria, particularly Salzburg and Vienna, Bavaria, Bohemia, Franconia, Switzerland
    • -Rococo: France, Bavaria
  19. Purpose of Baroque
    -To symbolize the strict organization of the system and its persuasive power; appears as a synthesis of dynamism and sysstematization
  20. Place Royale
    -Urban space centered on and developed around a statue of the sovereign
  21. Characteristics of the Baroque in Central Europe
    • -Italian influences meshed with craft-guild traditions
    • -Support of the style from the church and royalty (wanted a progressive image), along with the people (deep religious beliefs)
    • -Number symbolism, images of the saints as intercessors
    • -Light and airy churches
    • -Wandpfeiler (wall pillar, establish concept of centrality with longtitudal plans)
  22. Characteristics of Baroque in France
    • -Wall seen as a membrane instead of a thick piece as in italy
    • -Sense of verticality derived from Gothic
    • -Based on the idea of extension similar to that occurring at an urban level
    • -France--City--House
    • -Interior organization became more differentiated and comfortable (commodite)
    • -Villa (chateau)
    • - City Palace (hotel)
  23. Metaphysics
    • 1) Decartes
    • -discourse of method (1637)
    • -world as geometric extensions
    • -"mechanistic"
    • -looks like cells

    • 2) Leibniz
    • -monanology
    • -world as self-containing monads
    • -"organic"
    • -dots
  24. 2 Branches of Boroque
    • 1)adhereing to classicism of high renaissance
    • -Rome: bernini
    • -France: where it was transmutated into Gallic made of severe Boroque (le vau, le notre, mansart
    • -England
    • -related to french gothic

    • 2)combo of Bernini theatrical side and pure arch. expressionism
    • -Rome: Borromini
    • -Torino, Bavaria, Bohemia, Austria, (Guarini, Neumann, Von Erlach, Hildebrandt, Zimmermann)
    • -Related to German Gothic
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Hist Arch Exam 2
arch hist exam 2