Bio Test 3

  1. Kingdom Animal

    General Characteristics
    Multicalular heterotrophes

    • all can move under thier own power at some point in thier life cycle
    • Gametic Meiosis for Reproductin
  2. Development post Fertilization
    Zygote--->Morula--->blastula--blastopore-> Gastrula
  3. Zygote
    Single Cell
  4. Morula
    Solid ball
  5. Blastula
    Hollow Ball
  6. Blastopore
    Forms either the mouth or Anus. If the anus is first then you get a mouth, if the mouth is formed first then there is NO anus
  7. Parazoans

    No symmetry

    no tissues or organs

    Sponges only
  8. Eumetazoans
    • Multicellular
    • have symmetry
    • tissues and organs
  9. During Early Development Eumetazoans have three tissue layers
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Ectoderm
  10. Endoderm
  11. Mesoderm
    Middle layer
  12. Ectoderm
    Outer layer
  13. 4 basic body designs of Eumetazoans
    • 1. Symmetry
    • 2. Body cavity
    • 3. Segmentation
    • 4. Developmental
  14. 1. symmetry
    • Radial
    • Bilateral
    • Cephalization
  15. Radial
    Body is designed around a central axis no head, front or back (Jellyfish)
  16. Bilateral
    Front, back, top, bottom

    Head brain
  17. Cephalization
    • This favors organs in the head region to first contact environment and the development of a brain that can react to the sensory input.
    • Paired sensory organs - hearing vision smell
    • Provide orientation in a 3-D world
  18. 2. Body Cavity- found in bilateral organisms
    • Advantage
    • Better digestion-
    • -differentiation of the system
    • -room to hold foods so you can feed when it is safe and/or when food is abundant

    • Reproduction
    • room for large numbers of gametes (egg/sperm)
    • Room to hold fertilized eggs until release during favorable conditions, better survival
  19. Types of cavitys
    • Acoelomic
    • Pseudocoelomic
    • Coelomic
    • Coelome
  20. Acoelomic
    Incomplete gut - mouth but no anus
  21. Pseudocoelomic
    Complete gut - mouth and anus
  22. Coelomic
    Pseudocoelomic (gut) forms between the Mess and Endoderm
  23. Coelome
    • Forms within the mesoderm
    • this allows physical contact of all tissue layers resulting in more complex organ systems
    • -digestion
    • -circulation
  24. Digestion
    a complex, differentiated system with areas for storage, absorption, an elimination
  25. Circulation
    • the first heart and circulatory system
    • A transport system
    • open and closed
  26. open circulation system
    Blood does not return directly to heart
  27. Closed circulation system
    • Blood does return directly to the heart
    • more efficent
  28. 3. Segmentation
    All coelomic organisms except molluscs are segmented
  29. Advantages of segmentation
    a. Coordination of the segments allows efficent movement

    b. redundancy of organs in each segment. if one is damaged the others can compensate

    c. more complex nervous system to control a. and b.

    d. Fusing of segments to form highly specialized structures for feeding, sensory, locomotion.
  30. 4. Developmental
    Coelomic organisms only
  31. Protosome
    • Blastopore forms the mouth first
    • during development each cell does not have a full set of genetic instructions
    • if one is damaged the organism may not survive
  32. Deuterosome
    • blastopore forms the anus first
    • each cell has a full set of genetic instructions
    • if a cell is lost the others compensate
  33. Phylum: PORIFERA
    • Sponges
    • parazoans
    • most are marine organisms
    • simple organisms that simply filter water nutrient from the water
    • have intracellular digestion. each cell must absorb and digest its own nutrient
    • no storage capacity for food
  34. Phylum: CNIDARIA
    • Jellyfish, sea anemones and coral
    • radial symmetry
    • have Gastro Vascular Cavity (GVC)
    • have extracellular digestion - food is digested in the GVC
    • All Cnidarians have nematocysts
  35. Gastro Vascular Cavity GVC
    • a simple sac with one opening
    • can hold food or a large organism
    • has a large storage capacity
  36. Nematocysts
    • stinging cells that have a trigger that fires when touched
    • can produce powerful toxins
    • allow feeding on and protection from advanced organisms like fish
  37. Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    Flatworms- Planarians, Flokes and Tapeworms

    • Bilateral Symmetry
    • Head brain Cephalization
    • Excretion - Flame cell (throughout Body)
    • Acoelmic organisms- Incomplete gut mouth but no anus
    • GVC- a complex structure spread throughout the body
  38. Phylum: Nematode
    • Round worms
    • -All are parasites
    • -Bilateral
    • -Pseudocoelomic - complete gut, mouth and anus
    • -Intestine is a simple tube
    • -Excretion Protonephridia
    • -Pseudocoelomic cavity is full of fluid ( the fluid does help with some transport, the fluid filled cavity is the first hydrostatic skleton
  39. Phylum: molluscs
    Snails, slugs,clams, osyters,squid,octopi, cuttlefish and nautili

    • External: some have a shell , others don't, may or may not have a distinct head
    • Bilateral
    • Food- specialized structure for feeding or locomotion
    • Mantle- forms a chamber that can expell water for feeding, elimination, of waste or jet propulsion

    • Internal:
    • Coelomic- complex, differentiated digestive system
    • Heart - open and closed circulation
    • excretion- nephridia
    • unsegmented
  40. Class: Gastropod

    Phylum: molluscs
    • Snails have a shell
    • Slugs do not
    • Both have distinct head
    • foot is for gliding locomotion
    • open circulation
    • most are aquadic some are terestrial (the only ones in phylum)
  41. Class: Bivalve
    Phylum: Mollsucs
    • Clame, scallops, oysters, musseles
    • no head
    • all have two shells
    • open circulation
    • foot is for digging
    • all are aquatic filter feeders
  42. Class: cephalopods
    Phylum: Mollsucs
    • Squid, octopi, cuttle fish and nautili
    • all have a well developed head with eyes and excellent vision
    • Only the Natilus has a shell
    • Foot forms the tentacles with suckers for prey capture
    • Mantle can compress to provide jet propulsion
    • all have closed circulation
    • have an advanced nervous system
    • fast aggressive predators
    • show true intelligence with problem solving, memory and communication
  43. Phylum: Annelids
    • Marine worms, Earth worms, leeches
    • C oelomic
    • Bilateral
    • excretion- nephridia
    • thses are the segmented worms
    • 1. coordination
    • 2. redundancy
    • 3. nervous control
    • 4. specialization
  44. Phylum: Arthropod
    • Coelomic
    • bilateral
    • segmented
  45. Exoskeleton
    • Exterior shell
    • -hard
    • -protective
    • -above all waterproof
    • This allowed them to be the first terrestrial animal
  46. Jointed Appendages
    • Tremondus Mechinical advantage
    • makes them extremely strong and fast with very little weight
  47. Chelicerate
    DO NOT have antenne
  48. Mandibulate
    Have antenne
  49. Internal Features - Arthropod
    • OPen circulation
    • Respiration- trachea and Spiracles
    • Excretion - Malpighian tubes
  50. Spiracles
    Hole in exoskeleton
  51. Types of arthropods
    • 1. crusteacean
    • 2. Arachnid
    • 3. insects
  52. Crusteacean
    • Crab, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, pill bugs
    • Mandibulates- they have two pair of Antennae
    • Body - cephalothroax, Abdomen
    • 10 legs 5 pairs 1st pair often forms claws
  53. Arachnid
    • Spiders, scorpiones, ticks
    • Chelicerates - no antennae
    • body cephalothorax, abdomen
    • 8 legs 4 pair
  54. Insects
    • Mandibulates- one pair of antennae
    • Body
    • -head
    • -thorax
    • -abdomen
    • -6 legs or three pair
    • -many have wings and can fly, the only arthropod that does
    • -demonstrate many different mouth and leg adaptations

    Some show social organization - Ants, Bees, Termites
  55. Incomplete metamorphosis
    The young and adult look the same except for size
  56. Complete Metamorphosis
    Complete change from young to adult

    Caterpillar to butterfly

    about 90% of insects do this
  57. Phylum Echinoderms
    • Starfish, Sea unrchins, Sand dollars, Sea cucumbers
    • Fiirst to show deutersome development
    • first to have an endoskeleton
    • Development
    • -young bilateral
    • -adult Radial no head no brain
  58. Phylum: Chordata
    • Non-vertebrate chordate- no skull
    • Vertebrate chordate-skull
  59. General characteristics of ALL chordates
    • 1. notochord
    • 2. dorsal hollow nreve cord
    • 3. post anal tail
  60. notocord
    • Long soild flexible rod that runs the length of the body
    • provides support and surface area for muscle attachment
    • this provides efficent movement
  61. Post anal tail
    structure that extends beyond the anus, for balance and locomotion
  62. General characterictics of vertebrate chordates
    • 1. vertebral column of the vertebrae
    • 2. distinct head witha skull that surrounds and protects the brain.
    • 3. endoskeleton
    • 4. more advanced organsystem- complex and producing regulatory hormones
    • 5. neural crest
  63. Vertebral column
    • Hollow felxible structure that srrounds and protects the nerve cord.
    • Also provides support and gives muscle attachment
  64. Endoskeleton
    Internal framework for support, protection of organs and muscle attachment
  65. Neural crest
    Early developmentstructure found only in vertebrates
  66. Neural crest gives rise to (4)
    • a. gill arch- this develops later into the first jaw
    • b. Sensory system become more sensetive (vision, hearing , touch, smell, sence gravity magnitism, and electromagnetic aura
    • c. schwann cells
    • d. adrenal gland
  67. Schwann cells
    part of the nervous system. they greatly increase the speed of thesignal sent. allow fast responce
  68. Adrenal gland
    Produces adrenaline controls the stress responce

    fight/flight increase in BP, Heart rate, and respiration
  69. Fish - both cartilage and bony
    • Circulation single loop system
    • gill ---> heart---> body---> abck to gill

    Respiration counter current blood flows one way water in the opposite gives a maxium exchange of gas
  70. Skeleton of cartlage
    cartilage is tough, flexible and lightweight
  71. Skeleton of bone
    Bone is very strong cartilage and calcium ( tough, flexible and Hard)
  72. Sharks and rays
    • Must constantly move to respire
    • no swim bladder must swim or they will sink
  73. Fish
    • Can remain stationary to respire
    • have a swim bladder to give neutral bouyancy they can float
  74. Develop
Card Set
Bio Test 3
Bio Test 3 Diegmann CPCC