Polymers are broken apart by ________, the addition of water.
A specific _______ catalyzes each cellular reaction.
_________ have unique 3D shapes
As a result of its shape, the _____ has an active site where the ______ interacts with the _______’s substrate = specific substrate on which an _______ acts.
Enzymes each have an optimal ______ & ___
Many enzymes require non-protein helpers called _____________. Most vitamins are ________
cofactors (co-enzymes if organic)
An example of an substrate is
An example of an Enzyme is:
Substrate binds to enzyme with induced fit called:
In an example the bond connecting _______ & _________ becomes strained.
Substrate isconverted to Products (glucose & fructose) via _______
The human body uses energy from _________for all its activities.
________ ________ is the process that converts the chemical energy of food (sugars) to the chemical energy of ATP (adenosine triphosphate in animal cells, including human cells.
Cellular respiration occurs in three main stages:
2. Citric Acid Cycle
3. Oxidative Phosphorylation
_______ begins respiration by breaking glucose, a 6-C molecule, into 2 molecules of pyruvate, a 3-C compound.
Glycolysis occurs in the ________
________ undergoes transformation: carboxyl group removed & Coenzyme A added to yield Acetyl CoA
The Citric Acid Cycle is also called:
In what stage are electrons are shuttled through the electron transport chain to generate ATP
_______ _______:electrons are lost from one substance and added to another
Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the inner ________ _________
The CoA helps the 2-C acetyl group enter the ______ ______ _______ and then splits off.
citric acid cycle
The _______ ______ _______ breaks down the 2-C acetyl group; yields 1 ATP + electrons for oxidative phosphorylation (+ other products)
citric acid cycle
The citric acid cycle occurs in the ________
_______ _______ ______ is a series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that relelase energy used to make AT
Electron transport chain
_________ _______ are electrons are lost from one substance and added to another
Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the ________ ________ ________
inner mitochondrial membrane
bio 110 chapter 6