Immune System

  1. Immune System
    • Functional system-only comes up when needed
    • 2 types
  2. #1 of immune system Innate
    • Non-specific, reacts to anything
    • 2 lines of defence
  3. 1st line of defence
    Ex: skin barrier, mucus protection
  4. 2nd line of defence
    Ex: blood, phragocytes, protiens
  5. #2 Immune systme Addaptive
    • If all fails to work and protect body this line of defence works
    • Antibodies
  6. Trachea
    Cartilage ring like shape not complete mucsle area at top
  7. Phagocytes
    • Name given to any cell that can do a function
    • Function is to kill bugs
    • From monocytes
  8. Adhersion to phagocytes
    Microbe clings to phagocyte and killed and removed from cell
  9. Pseudopods
    Capsule formed around microbe so it can be moved through cell and then removed
  10. Lysosome in phragocyte
    • Kills and digests microbe
    • Suicide packet of cell
  11. Acid-hydrolase enzyme
    Lysosome enzymes-kill microbe in phagocytes
  12. Phagocytic vesicle
    Vesicle that carries microbe through phagocyte with lysosome enzymes
  13. Phagosome
    • The name of microbe once inside the cell
    • Lysosome enzyme attach and kill bug in phagosome
  14. Opsonigation process
    The coating of sugar on microbe so it can be attached by phagocyte
  15. NKC-Natral Killer Cells
    • "Pitt Bulls" of immune system
    • Defence, Immune cells
    • Secrete perfornis-sphere like-kills bugs
  16. Nervouse system defence cells
    Microgillia-immune cell of brain
  17. Liver immune cell
    Kupffer cell-immune cell
  18. Respitatory Burst
    The taking in of air by cells to make O- free radicals that will kill bugs
  19. Infection
    Attach of microbes
  20. Inflammation
    • Response given by body to attach of microbe
    • Heat, pain, swelling, red
  21. Phagotisis
    The process of an invading microbe being killed and decarted
  22. Inflammatory Chemicals
    • Ex: Histomine
    • Sends positive chemotaxiz signal out from site of inflammation
  23. Positive Chemotaxis
    • Signal sent out by imflammatory chemicals
    • Reinforces chemical movement to cite of infection
  24. Neutrophils
    • Enter blood vessels from bone marrow
    • Cling to walls of blood vessels
  25. Margination
    Neutrophils cells walk along blood vessels so it wont be draged away by blood traveling in other direction
  26. Diapedesis
    Neutrophils walk along to infection cite with legs then travel up to cite to kill bugs
  27. Virus
    DNA and RNA-need host to live and divide
  28. Virus entry
    • Only DNA, RNA enter cell
    • Use up all the cells good to divide and live
    • Travels cell to cell infecting each
  29. Interferon Genes (Host cell) of virus entry
    Makes interferon protiens, sends to next cell which will be made into anti-viral protiens which block virus from binding
  30. Retroviral Drugs
    Blocks RNA virus from becoming DNA very exspensive treatment (HIV)
  31. Complement proteins
    • Groud of proteins-20 diff types
    • Makes hole on invading bug and makes it stay open for ever-so enzyme & lysosomes can always enter
    • Complex cascade
  32. Addaptive-antibodies
    when 1st and 2nd line fail we make antibodies
  33. Antibodies
    • Anything that works agianst anything invading
    • Attatch to antingen at protein cite
  34. Antigenic Determinants
    • Antibodies are made against these
    • Shape depends on amino acid protein
  35. Antigen
    Invading protein, must match up at hapten for antibody to work
  36. Hapten
    • Site where antigen and antibody attatch
    • Only need a portion of antigenic determinants to make antibodies
  37. Attenuated virus
    A weakened virus, alive but weak
  38. Dead virus
    virus is dead cant live
  39. Antibody Parts
    • Heavy chain
    • Light chain
    • Antigen-binding site
  40. Antigen-binding site
    Site where antigen (invader) binds to antibody at tip
  41. B lymphocytes
    • Blood cell that makes antibodies
    • Antigen binding to lymphocytes to kill antigen
    • B lymphocytes are cloned
  42. Plasama Cells
    Makes antibodies that are put in blood and circulated constintly
  43. Memory Cells
    • A copy of antibodies combination
    • If antibody #'s get low it can copy and make more and more plasma cells so antibodies can be made
  44. Vacines
    Weakend or dead bug-gives cells time to recognize the virus so antibodies can be made befor illness
  45. 5 Types of antibodies
    • IgD
    • IgM
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgE
  46. IgM
    first antibody that is made in immune response
  47. IgG
    Most # of antibodies in blood from IgG
  48. Immunity
    Body respose or vaccine
  49. Pyrogen
    realeased by phagocytes responce (fever)
  50. Naturally acquired immunity
    • Mounting resonse in body at all times
    • Active-infection
    • Passive-antibodies passed through mothers milk
  51. Artificially acquired immunity
    • Vaccine
    • Active-vaccine dead or attenuated
    • Passive-isolated antibodies produced outside the body and given synthetically
  52. First shot
    Antibodies go down after awhile never hit zero
  53. Booster shot
    • Stimulates memory cells to make more plasma cells that make antibodies
    • Keeps antibodies up for years
  54. Toxins and Bug
    Both have antibodies
  55. Antigen Antibody complex
    Both come together inactivation-everything stops antibody stops antigen
  56. Neutralization of antigen
    Blocks all sides of antigen makes it inactive
  57. Agglutination of antigen
    Alot of antibodies bind to antigen and pull it down and they clupm together inactive
  58. Precipitation of antigen
    Become particalized and are pulled down into tube become inactive and insoluble
  59. Myesthenia graves
    Your body makes antibodies agianst eseatolie receptors-decrease mucsle movement-in face
  60. Transution reacation
    • Immune reacation to antigens
    • Given in transfusion
  61. Anafolectic Shock
    • Increased immune reaction
    • body goes crazy
    • Anafolatic shock
  62. Atopy
    When shock spreads to whole body
  63. Autograph
    • Organ or tissue from your body to you
    • (same)
  64. Isopgraph
    • Twins-share stuff
    • No transplant rejection
    • (similar)
  65. Allograph
    • No relation
    • Same species
    • Exchange of organ and tissue
  66. Xenograph
    • Not the same species
    • Organ or tissue transplant
    • Pig
Card Set
Immune System
Immune system