1. major structures of brain moving rostral to caudal
    • olfactory bulb
    • cortex
    • thalamus (dorsal)
    • hypothalamus (ventral)
    • tectum (dorsal)
    • tegmentum (ventral)
    • cerebellum (dorsal)
    • pons (ventral)
    • spinal cord

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  2. Decussation of Pyramids
    crossover of projection fibers

    right hemisphere control left side of body
  3. Functions of the Hypothalamus
    • 1. control of the autonomic nervous system
    • 2. control of emotional responses
    • 3. regulation of body temp
    • 4. regulation of hunger and thirst
    • 5. control of behavior
    • 6. regulation of sleep wake cycles
    • 7. control of endrocrine system
    • 8. formation of memory
  4. Autonomic nervous system
    • Sympathetic- prepares body for arousal
    • ex: increased breathing, increased heart rate
    • axons release norepinephrine
    • -fight or flight

    • Parasympthetic- facilitates vegetative nonemergency responses by the body's organs
    • ex:inrease digestive activty, activities opposing the sympathetic nervous system
    • -consists of cranial nerves and nerves from scral spinal cord
    • -relaxation and rest
  5. Conversion
    • coined by Freud to describe the mechanism by which unresolved, unconscious conflict might be transformed into symbolic physical symptoms
    • -body is playing out the dramas of the mind
  6. levels of consciousness
    • conscious- current awareness
    • preconcious- not aware of material but its retrievable
    • unconscious- not aware of material and not retrievable
  7. psychic determinism
    • nothing happens by chance or accident
    • everything we do think say and feel is an expression of our mind
  8. Defense Mechanisms
    Sublimation: redirecting 'wrong' urges into socially acceptable actions.

    Repression: pushing uncomfortable thoughts into the subconscious.

    Denial: Blindness to uncomfortable facts; clinging to false beliefs to avoid fear/shame/arousal.

    Displacement: redirecting emotions to a substitute target.

    Intellectualization: taking an overly rationalistic viewpoint to deny/avoid emotions.

    Projection: attributing one’s own unconscious uncomfortable feelings to others.

    Rationalization: creating false but credible justifications to avoid guilt/shame.

    Reaction Formation: overacting in the opposite way to an emotion in order to control it.

    Regression: reverting to prior developmental states.
  9. The 3 Harsh Taskmasters
    the Id: the monster of rage, lust, hunger

    the World: a dangerous place and a source of conflict

    The superego: the demanding quest for perfection
  10. Three interacting systems
    determinants of mental health and psychopathology

    • -Ego identity (psychology)
    • -group (social)
    • - Organism (biology)
  11. Psychosoocial
    • Psychological - Intrapsychic (mind):
    • -components, development, and attributes of personality

    • Social- Relationships (interpersonal)
    • - mother and father
    • -siblings and extended family
    • -peers
    • -community
    • -humanity
  12. Epigenetic principle
    • There is a natural, predetermined order to development
    • -personality growth follows a sequence of inner predetermined laws
    • -each person develops through a sequence of interrelated stages that emerge in accordanec with this preset plan

    each stage a person is confronted with a crisis that must be resolved
  13. Psychosocial stages
    • 1 Trust vs. Mistrust
    • 2. Autonomy vs. Shame
    • 3. Initiative vs. Guilt
    • 4. Industry vs. Inferiority
    • 5. Identity vs. Role confusion (diffusion)
    • 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • 8. Integrity vs. Despair
  14. Personality Disorder
    • -inflexible, maladaptive patterns of personality
    • -often begins early in life
    • -results in social, occupational problems or distress

    • Cluster A: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
    • Cluster B: antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic
    • Cluster C: avoidant, obsessive- compulsive, depended
    • Impulse Control Disorders
  15. Causes of Antisocial PD
    Genetics, birth trauma, sensation-seeking, family dynamics, modeling and media
  16. Characteristics of the Unconscious
    *the Primary Process

    • -illogical
    • -wish fullfillment and drive satisfaction
    • -no ethical system other than pleasure seeking
    • - parameters like time don't exhist
  17. Priniciples of Personality Theory
    • -fixation
    • -regression
    • -repetition/compulsion
    • -earlier lesions are worse than later ones
    • - ego defense mechanisms
    • -for some nurture is more important than nature
  18. libido
    a pleasure seeking energy

    only sexual when it became genital at the conclusion of childhood
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