Personality psychology exam 2

  1. Gordan Allport
    • Started the whole trait approach
    • "dirt phobia"
    • counted over 4,000 personality traits in the dictionary
    • wanted to find the major traits
  2. Early typologies
    • Assumed that everyone fit into one or the other category
    • Phrenology
    • Morphology
    • humorism
  3. Phrenology
    Ones personality can be related to the mapping of one's brain by the mapping of the bumps of the brain.
  4. Morphology
    • The body type of an individual can determine personality
    • ectomorphic
    • endomorphic
    • mezomorphic
  5. ectomorphic
    • Thin body type
    • seen as fragile
  6. endomorphic
    • overweight body type
    • seen as lazy
  7. mezomorphic
    • muscular type
    • seen as productive ans sucessful
  8. Humorism
    • looked at bodily fluids to determine personality
    • four temperments: sanguine, melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic
  9. sanguine (greek)
  10. melancholic (greek)
  11. choleric (greek)
  12. phlegmatic (greek)
  13. Modern Trait Dimensions
    • Personalities can be measured on a continum
    • normally distributed
  14. Normal Distribution
    few people are at the extremes while everyone else lies somewhere in the middle
  15. Henry Murray
    • Personology
    • having an affair with his wife but was encouraged to continue the affair to save marriage by jung
    • idealist, patriotic, loyal, creative
    • created the TAT test
  16. Raymond Cattell
    • created the 16 PF test
    • first in family to go to college
    • chemist but switched to personality psychology
  17. Walter Mishel
    criticized personality psychology tests
  18. Nomothetic approach
    • Created by Gordon Allport
    • method of understanding personality that compares many people along the same personality dimensions
  19. idiographic approach
    • method of studying personality through in-depth analysis of one individual and the dimensions relevant to that person's personality.
    • central traits then cardinal traits
  20. common traits
    • traits that only appear depending on a certain situation
    • example: anxious before public speaking
  21. central trait
    • specific traits that are specific to the individual
    • example: shy, honest, intelligent,
  22. Cardinal Trait
    • a trait that completely defines ones personality
    • very rare
    • example: christ-like
  23. functional autonomy
    Our present motives are interdependent from our past behaviors
  24. "Letters from Jenny"
    • to study the idiographic approach, Allport studied a woman who used the pseudonum Jenny Masterson
    • identified eight of her central traits by studying more than 300 of her letters over 12 years.
  25. Personology
  26. Psychogenic Needs
    the need for power, affiliation, achievement
  27. Thematic Apperception test
    • Created by Henry Murray
    • shows a picture and the patient tells a story of what is happening
  28. Interaction with the "press"
    • Your behavior will not be activated unless there a situation( press) that calls for it
    • example: the need for order will be pressed when you need to make time to clean your room even if it is slightly messy
  29. Factor analysis
    • statistical procedure used to determine the number of dimensions in a data set.
    • emprical search for central traits
    • putting taits onto a 2d space (dimension scale)
  30. 16 Personality Factor Inventory
    • relevant to business and performance
    • tests adults based on 16 major personality factors
  31. The Big five
    • Neroticism
    • Extraversion
    • Openness
    • Agreeableness
    • Conscientiousness
  32. Neuroticism
    insecure, emotionaly unstable, anxious
  33. Openness
    adaptable, open minded, variety
  34. extraversion
    outgoing, social, lively
  35. agreeableness
    warm, friendly, soft-hearted
  36. conscientiousness
    detail-oriented, carefeul, dependeable, organized
  37. criticism of personality psychology
    • tests were misused and should not be a diagnosis
    • not reliable or valid
    • needs to look at situations
    • Tests need to predict a constellation of behaviors in order to be more reliable
  38. Response to criticism
    • personality psychology was paralyzed for the time being
    • tests became aggregated
    • Personality Psychology is not a separate discipline
  39. One item measurement
    Testing for one major trait
  40. aggregate data
    finding a "constellation" of behaviors
  41. Person-by-situation
    looking at the relationship between a persons traits, situation, and behavior
  42. Achievement motivation
  43. Big 5 in the workplace
    • #1 most important trait is conscientiousness
    • tied for #2 are agreeableness for teamwork
    • and extraversion for sales
    • openness for creativity
  44. Type A personality
    • An extreme description of a personality
    • workaholic, time urgency, competitive, efficient, short tempered
  45. Type B personality
    • an extreme description of a personality
    • laid back, not urgent on time, less competitive
  46. predictive validity for type A personality
    • higher awards, faster job advancement, work longer hours
    • less job satisfaction, high blood pressure
  47. toxic component of type A personality
    • hostility towards little occurances in everyday life and could lead to heart disease
    • if this can be controlled type A is very beneficial
  48. evaluation apprehension
    • self anxiety about others will view yourself
    • they mostly fear a negative evaluation
  49. Drug Rehab changing personality
    • Those in drug rehab were tested at the beginning and after fifteen month this was found:
    • Decreased neuroticism
    • increased agreeableness and conscientiousness
  50. Changing Social Anxiety
    • Must have an increase in motivation and courage
    • It will be a complete change however it will be enough so that it is significant to the individual.
  51. Trait Profiling and Bullies
    • Have a high level of Neuroticism, conflicts with family, high levels of psychoticism
    • At age 26, bullies are 65% more likely to have a felony
  52. Trait profling and whipping boys
    High levels of Neuroticism, low self-esteem, and low social skills
  53. Trait profiling and smokers
    High neuroticism, extraversion, sensation seeking
  54. Trait profiling and alchoholics
    • High Neuroticism and sensation seeking; impulsive
    • low agreeableness and conscientiousness
  55. Trait profiling and serial killers
    • Serial killer triad (almost always shows in every serial killer)
    • torturing small animals
    • starting destructive fires
    • bedwetting (lack of control, anal repulsive, aggression)
  56. Hans Eysenck
    • Super Traits
    • Backgournd: Jewish sympathizer during WWII,originally studied biology but forced to study psychology, wanted a big family
  57. David Buss
    • Evolutional theories of universal traits
    • Background: bad grades in school except math, dropped out of highschool but got into a prestigous university by a lottery pick, grew up in poverty
  58. Biological Approach
    Personality is formed by a combination of genetic and physiological traits
  59. Heritability of temperament
    • The characteristic phenomena of an individuals emotional nature
    • depends on experiences and how person responds to the experience
    • largely inherited before first year of age
  60. EAS temperaments
    • E- emotional activity (how easily angered is the child)
    • A- acionality (the energy output; are they figity?)
    • S- Sociability (tendency to socialize with others)
  61. Super traits
    • used rudemetary by Eysenck
    • Extraversion, Neuroticism, psychotocism
    • believed that these three were largely inherited
  62. Hierarchy of traits
    Supertraits -> traits-> habitual resonse -> specific response
  63. example of hierarchy of traits
    extraversion -> sociability -> likes to go to parties -> how person socializes at the party
  64. Intraversion vs extraversion research
    • Eysenck studied different peoples reactions to caffeine
    • extraverts are more likely to drink more caffeine because they are less sensitive to stimulation
    • intraverts CNS operates at an above normal level so caffeine affects them more
  65. Natural selection
    • inherited characteristics that help species meet and survive threats from the environment
    • makes them more likely to survive and pass on traits to offspring
  66. Universal traits
    • traits that have a reproductive advantage will most likely be passed on to future generations until it becomes a universal trait within genders
    • example: fertility in women
  67. Evolutionary mating behavior in males
    • tend to want the more mating partners
    • parental investment: sperm
  68. evolutionary mating behavior in females
    • more choosier of mating partner
    • parental investment: 9 months of limited mobility
  69. evolutionary mate selection in males
    • males tend to look for fertility cues
    • anything that signals that the female is of fertile mating age (healthy skin, hair color, etc)
  70. evolutionary mate selection in females
    • tend to look for resource cues
    • anything to shoe that the male can provide for female and child
    • example: money, status, intelligence
  71. evolutionary sexual jealousy in males
    • males tend to have stronger sexual jealousy than emotional jealousy
    • stems from paternal uncertainty in that the father may be unsure of who the real biological father is
  72. evolutionary sexual jealousy
    • emotional jealousy is stronger than sexual jealousy
    • stems from the fact that the female may leave the resources that the father would provide female and child
  73. Goodness of fit model
    • the sucess of a child in schools depends on how well its environment matches its learning capabilities, characteristics, an style of behavior,
    • example: teacher's expectations, pace of learning, amount of content learned at a time
  74. heritability of extraversion
    • extraverts require stronger stimulations to operate at peak level
    • need some kind of "life" in surroundings to focus
    • more impulsive
  75. heritability of intraverts
    • more receptive to stimulants; require less
    • need few distractions to focus
    • thinks things through before acting
Card Set
Personality psychology exam 2
personality psychology