Test 4

  1. What are the types of muscle tissues
    Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
  2. What does the skeletal muscle do
    attaches to bones and skin, its striated, voluntary, and powerful
  3. What is the cardiac muscle
    Its only in the heart, striated and involuntary
  4. What is the smooth muscle
    In the walls of hollow organs, stomach, urinary bladder, blood vessels, and airways, not striated, involuntary
  5. What are the muscle functions
    The movement of bones of fluids, mainting posture and body positions, stabilizing joints, and heat generation
  6. What happens in the skeletal muscle
    each muscle is served one artery, one nerve, and one or more veins
  7. The Epimysium does what
    surrounds the entire muscle, covered by what makes up tendons
  8. What does Perimysium do
    surrounds fascicles
  9. What surrounds each muscle fiber
  10. Muscles attach
    Directly and indirectly
  11. What happens Directly
    epimysium of muscle is fused to the periosteum of bone or perichondrium of cartilage
  12. What happens Indirectly
    connective tissue wrappings extend beyond the muscle as a ropelike tendon or sheetlike aponeurosis
  13. What are myofibrils
    densely packed, rodlike elements, 80% of cell volume
  14. Exhibit striations are what
    perfectly aligned repeating series of dark A bands and light I bands
  15. What is the smallest contractile unit muscle fiber, region of a myofibril between two successive Z discs, thick & thin myofilaments made of contractile proteins
  16. what are the features of sarcomere
    thick filaments, thin filaments, and z discs
  17. What do thick filaments do
    run the entire length of an A band
  18. What do thin filaments do
    run the length of the I band and partway into the A band
  19. What do Z discs do
    Connect myofibrils to one another
  20. What is contraction
    The generation of force, does not cause shortening of the fiber, shortening occurs tension generated by cross bridges thin filaments exceeds forces opposing shortening
  21. What are the requirements for skeletal muscle contaction
    activation and excitation
  22. What is activation
    neural stimulation at a neuromuscular junction
  23. What is excitation
    Contraction coupling, generation and propagation of an action potential along the sarcolemma, final trigger a brief rise in intracellular Ca2+ levels
  24. What are the cross bridge cyle
    cross bridge formation, working stroke, cross bridge detachment, cocking of the myosin head
  25. high energy myosin head attaches to thin filaments
    cross bridge formation
  26. myosin head pivots and pulls thin filament toward M line
    Working stroke
  27. ATP attaches to myosin head and cross bridge detaches
    cross bridge detachment
  28. Energy from hydolysis of ATP cooks the myosin head into the high-energy state
    cocking of the muscle head
  29. What is an isometric contraction
    no shortening, muscle tension increases but does not exceed the load
  30. What is a Isotonic contraction
    muscle shortens because muscle tension exceeds the load
  31. What is a motor unit
    a motor neuron and all muscle fibers it supplies
  32. What is a large motor unit
    In large weight bearing muscles(thighs, hip)
  33. What is a small motor unit
    units in muscles that control fine movements
Card Set
Test 4
A&P 1