Anatomy Chapter 18

  1. Skeletal system
    bony framework of the body
  2. Cartilage
    Nonvascular connective tissue
  3. Joint
    Where bones meet
  4. Hematopoiesis
    Process within the skeletal system which forms blood cells.
  5. Osteoblasts
    bone building cells
  6. Osteoclasts
    bone reabsorbing cells
  7. Osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  8. Ossification (calcification)
    Complete bone formation
  9. Bone matrix
    Mixture of collagen fibers and chemicals
  10. Lamellae
    layers of bone
  11. Haversian System
    Has canals of veins, arteries, and lymph vessels that penetrate the bone matrix
  12. Bone Marrow
    Made up of connective tissue and blood vessels.
  13. Red marrow
    responsible for manufacture of red and white blood cells.
  14. Yellow marrow-
    Produces some white blood cells
  15. Cartilage
    Connective tissue attached to bone
  16. Hyaline Cartilage
    covers the ends of bones
  17. Elastic Cartilage
    very flexible
  18. Fibrous cartilage
    connects bones to other bones at joints
  19. Fossa
    a depression or hollow space in a bone for attachments.
  20. Foramen
    hole or opening in a bone through which blood vessels and nerves can pass
  21. Sinus
    Air-filled cavity in a bone
  22. Fissure
    Narrow opening between parts of a bone that allows blood vessels and nerves to pass.
  23. Condyte
    Large, rounded, knuckle-like prominence that forms a joint with another bone
  24. Tuberosity
    Large, rounded, roughened process that attaches muscles and ligaments to the bone
  25. Fontanel
    space between skull bones at birth filled with dense fibrous connective tissue.
  26. Long bones
    found in the upper and lower extremities
  27. Short bones
    appear in the wrist (carpals) and ankle (tarsals).
  28. Flat bones
    found in the skull, ribs, and scapula
  29. Irregular bones
    spinal column, sphenoid and sphenoid bones of skull, the sacrum, the coccyx, patella and mandible.
  30. Diaphysis
    main shaft of long bone
  31. Epiphysis
    expanded ends of long bones
  32. Metaphysis
    Flared ends of long bones between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
  33. Epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
    layer of cartilage located where the epiphysis meets the mataphysis
  34. Medullary cavity
    Cavity where bone marrow is deposited in long bones.
  35. Compact bone
    dense bone on the outside of short, flat, and irregular bones.
  36. Axial Skeleton
    contains bones of skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, and hyoid bone ( in throat)
  37. Paranasal sinuses
    large spaces within the skull's framework
  38. Articulation
    the joining together of flat bones
  39. Sutures
    place where articulation occurs
  40. Fontanels
    soft spots located between cranial bones
  41. Frontal bone
    forms the forehead
  42. Parietal Bones (2)- left and right
    -give shape to the top of the cranium
  43. Occipital Bone
    forms the back part of the cranial floor
  44. Foramen Magnum
    arge opening at the base of the occipital bone where spinal column joins the skull.
  45. Temporal Bones (2)
  46. form the lower sides of the skull
  47. Sphenoid Bone
  48. located behind nose and eye sockets
    -bat bone
  49. Ethmoid Bones
  50. form most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the eye orbits.
  51. Foramena
    smaller openings in the cranial bones through which cranial nerves and blood vessels pass
  52. Mandible
    Lower jawbone
  53. Maxillae
    upper jawbones
  54. Nasal bones (2)
    located side by side
  55. Vomer bone
    forms the lower wall between the nostrils
  56. Zygomatic bones
  57. Lacrimal Bones
    within the eye orbits along side of nose
  58. Palatine Bones
    behind the hard palate
  59. Nasal Conchae
    above the roof of the mouth.
  60. Vertebral Column
    spinal column
  61. Cervical Vertebrae

    -located in the neck
  62. atlas
    first vertebrae, which supports head and allows head to nod
  63. axis
    second vertebrae- serves as a pivot when the head turns from side to side
  64. Thoracic Vertebrae

    -posterior portion of each of the 12 rib pairs is attached to these
  65. Lumbar Vertebrae

    • -support the weight of the entire body
    • -are heavier and larger than other vertebrae
  66. Sacrum
    begins as 5 bones that fuse to one

    -located between the 2 hip bones
  67. Coccyx (tailbone)
    begins as 4 bones that fuse to 1
  68. Intervertebral discs
    discs of cartilage that separate vertebrae from one another
  69. Spinous process
    weight bearing, drum shaped structure toward the front of each vertebrae
  70. Sternum
  71. Manubrium
    (upper portion) of the sternum- joins with the collarbone and first rib.
  72. Body
    (middle portion) of the sternum- next nine ribs attach there.
  73. Xiphoid process
    (lower portion) of the sternum– forms attachment for the diaphragm and abdominal muscles.
  74. There are 12 pairs of ribs
    • -7 pairs of true ribs – attach directly to the sternum
    • -3 pairs of false ribs – connected indirectly to the sternum
    • -2 pairs of floating ribs – attached only to the vertebrae
  75. Appendicular Skeleton
    contains bones of the upper and lower extremities
  76. Pectoral Girdle
    forms the shoulder
  77. Clavicle
  78. Scapula
    shoulder blade
  79. Sternoclavicular joint
    where the clavicle and sternum join
  80. Acromion Process
    • where the scapula and clavicle join
    • -site of muscle attachment
  81. Humerus
    upper arm
  82. Olecranon Process
    Where the humerus joins the bones of the elbow
  83. Radius
    thumb side of the forearm
  84. Ulna
    little finger side of the forearm
  85. Carpals
    8 small bones of the wrist
  86. Metacarpals
    form the hand
  87. Phalanges
    bones of the finger
  88. Pelvic Girdle
    brings together the hip bones, sacrum and coccyx
  89. ilium
    upper portion of pelvis
  90. ischium
    lowest portion
  91. pubis
    joins hipbones together
  92. Acetabulum
    the socket where the femur joins the pelvic girdle.
  93. Femur
  94. Patella
  95. Tibia
    larger and stronger bone of the lower leg
  96. Fibula
    smaller bone of the lower leg
  97. Tarsal bones
    7 bones of the ankle
  98. Metatarsals
    long bones of the foot
  99. Phalanges
  100. Longitudinal arch
    stretches front to back
  101. Transverse arch
    goes from side to side
  102. Articulations
    joints where 2 or more bones come together
  103. Synarthrosis
    no movement
  104. Amphiarthrosis
    slight movement
  105. Diarthrosis
    free movement
  106. Articular cartilage
    lippery type of cartilage that covers the surfaces of two bones that come together
  107. Bursa
    a capsule made up of tough, fiberous connective tissue and filled with synovial fluid
  108. Synovial Cavity
    filled with synovial fluid
  109. Ball and socket joints
    allow widest range of movement
  110. Hinge joints
    move only in one direction
  111. Pivot joints
    allow for rotation
  112. Saddle joints
    have a concave-convex socket
  113. Gliding joints
    allow flat surfaces to move across each other
  114. Condyloid joints
    oval-shaped bones that fit into an elliptical cavity.
  115. Ligaments
    connect bones to bones
  116. Tendons
    connect muscles to bones
  117. Flexation
    a bending motion that brings 2 neighboring bones closer together
  118. Extension
    opposite of flexation and results from an increase in the angle of the bones.
  119. Abduction
    when an extremity is moved away from the body.
  120. Adduction
    occurs when movement goes toward the midline of the body.
  121. Rotation
    when one bone moves or turns on its own axis.
  122. -supination
    turning the palm upward
  123. pronation
    turning the palm downward
  124. inversion
    turning sole of foot inward
  125. eversion
    turn sole of foot outward
  126. Circumduction
    a combination of flexation, abduction, extension, and adduction, in that order.
  127. Dislocation
    the displacement of a joint from its proper position
  128. reduction
    returning bones to their proper position
  129. Subluxation
    partial dislocation of a joint
  130. Sprain
    when the ligaments around the joint are stretched, torn, or ruptured
  131. Strain
    when muscles or tendons are stretched beyond their capacity
  132. Fracture
    bone break
  133. Closed reduction
    repairing the break when the skin has not been punctured or does not require surgical opening
  134. Open reduction
    when a bone breaks through the skin
Card Set
Anatomy Chapter 18
Skeletal system