1. capillaries
    • (slowest pressure system)are only one epithelial cell in thickness, are the smallest blood vessels in the body.
    • connectors of the arterial and Venous systems.
    • exchange of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products occurs in the capilliaries.
  2. leukocytes
    • WBC
    • defends body from infections and foreign substances.
  3. Blood
    • liquid 55%
    • formed elements 45%
    • human body is 90% water.
  4. heart
    • hollow muscle organ.
    • effective pump.
    • furnishes blood supple to the body.
    • app. 300g (11oz) adult heart weight.
  5. myocardium
    • (middle) thickest and abundant MI.
    • beats constantly.
    • continous O supply.
    • rapid waste removal.
  6. pericardium
    • thin membranous sac that surrounds and protects the heart.
    • pericadium fluid prevents friction when the heart beats.
  7. coronary arteries
    • supplys the myocardium with oxygen-rich blood.
    • if disrupted MI may occur, (kinks, blocked with blood clots.).
    • five primary CA's.
  8. blood flow thru the heart.
    • 1. Aorta
    • 2. Right coronary artery
    • 3. Left anterior descending coronary artery
    • 4. circumflex coronary artery
    • 5. left main coronary artery
  9. tricuspid valve(3 cusps)
    controls the flow of blood between the right atrium right ventricle.
  10. pulmonaray valve (semilunar)
    is between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and allows deoxygenated blood to flow into the lungs.
  11. mitral valve (bicuspid)
    controls the flow of blood between the left atruim and left ventricle.
  12. aortic valve( semilunar)
    controls the flow of bllod from the left ventricle into the aorta.
  13. pulmonary circulation
    • Deoxygenated blood flows out from the heart from the right ventricle, thru the pulmonary arteries into the lungs.
    • Only place in the body arteries carry deoxygenated blood.

    • In the lungs CO2 from the body is the exchanged for O from inhaled air(get ride of waste). pulmonary veins carry the oxygenated blood into the left atrium.
    • Only place in the body veins carry oxygenated.
    • We breath 20% of oxygen.
  14. Whats the difference between pulmonary arteries and veins?
    • arteries-away from the heart and carry oxygenated blood.
    • veins-to the heart and carry deoxygenated blood.
  15. veins
    • (low pressure system) return oxygen poor blood to the heart.
    • Veins have one way valves that assure proper blood flow thru out the body.
    • Venules are smaller veins that articulate to form larger veins.
    • Vena cavae two largest veins in body that returns blood to heart.
  16. arteries
    • Large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the body.
    • Arteries larger and high pressure.
  17. systolic pressure
    Occurs when the ventricles contract,highest amount pressure against the wall of the artery. Depolarization118/.
  18. diastolic pressure
    • ventricles relaxation.
    • lowest amount of pressure against the wall of the (artery)vessels. Repolarization /78.
  20. SA Node
    • sinoatrial
    • Located in the posterior wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava.
    • establish basic rythm and rate of heart beat. (pace maker)
    • start each wave of muscle contraction in the heart.
    • impulse in the right atrium spread over the muscle of both atria, causing them to contract simultaneously, forsing blood to the ventricles.
  21. P-wave
    atrial depolarization (contraction)(top part of the heart contracts).
  22. QRS complex
    • ventricular depolarization (contraction).
    • lower part of the heart contracts.
    • Q-wave-neg deflection.
    • R-wave-pos deflection
    • S-wave-neg deflection
  23. MI (myocardial infartion) 6am and 10am?
    • Heart attack
    • Blockage of one or more coronary arteries can lead to infartion.
    • Acute deficiency of blood supply to the myocardium resulting in a infarction(localized necrosis).
    • If blood flow is not restored to the muscle w/i 20-40-mins irreversible death of the heart muscle will begin to occur.
    • Muscle continues to die for 6-8hrs heart attack is usually complete.
  24. MI(myocardial infarction)
    • heart attack
    • occlusion of one or more arteries cause by plaque
    • build up.
    • generally occur in mornings.
  25. Angina
  26. cholesterol
    • waxy fat like substance.
    • lipoprotein(vehicle, transporter).
    • 180-200mg normal or less.
  27. hypertension how many suffer?
    60 million americans
  28. blood pressure
    • normal less then 120/80mmHg(american health ass.)
    • pre-hypertension120-139/80-89mmHg
    • high blood pressure(stage 1)140-159/90-99mmHg
    • high blood pressure(stage2) higher then 160/100mmHg
    • as many as 60 million americans have high blood pressure.
  29. How can high blood pressure be treated?
    • Water pills(diuretics) increases sodium excretion and urine output and decreases blood volume.
    • Hydrodiuril,lasix demadex(most common)used to stimulates bladder with potasium.
    • Beta blockers-reduce heart rate and decreases the force of heart contraction by blocking the actcion of adrenaline receptors.(tenormin)
  30. risk factors of hypertension
    • age
    • race family(genetics)
    • gender(XY males)
    • socioeconomics($)
    • things we can change: obesity, sodium alcohol.
  31. cholesterol #
    • totalcholesterol less then 200mg/dl desireable.
    • 200-239mg/dl borderline high.
    • 240mg/dl and over high risk.
    • LDL low density lipoprotein(bad cholesterol).
    • Less then 100mg/dl optimal.
    • triglycerides less then 150mg/dl normal
  32. healthy triglyceride level?
    less then 150mg/dl normal.
  33. embolus
    blood clot, quantity of air or gas,tissue,tumor that is circulating in the blood.(throbus is clotted)
  34. CPK-MB
    cardiac enzymes ar creatine phosphokinase(CPK) special subfraction of CPK(specifically, MB fraction of CPK), and troponin, and their levels can be measured in blood.
  35. angina
    • episodes of servere chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium.
    • due to ischemia of heart muscle.
    • preventing angina: lifestyle changes, medications, invasive procedures(coronary angioplasty).
  36. Body part that may effect the heart health?
    oral hygen
  37. atrium
    • two upper chambers of the heart.(receiver).
    • all blood vessels coming into the heart enter here.
    • seperated by interatrial septem.
    • Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via pulmonary veins.
  38. ventricles
    • two lower chambers of the heart.
    • pumping chambers.
    • walls are thicker then the atria because the ventricles must pump blood thru out the body.
    • Right ventricle deoxygenated blood as the right atrium contracts.(fills with blood)
    • Left ventricle receives oxygenated blood as the left atrium contracts.
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