Geography - South America

  1. South America
    • *population is over 370,000,000 people
    • *continent takes up about 6,880,000 square miles (about 12% of world's land area
    • -fourth largest continent
    • *the Andes is the world's longest mountain range
    • -extends 4,500 miles - all the way down the western coast of the continent
    • *main languages are Spanish and Portuguese
    • *predominant religion is Roman Catholic
  2. Caribbean South America
    • *five countries make up the northern territories
    • 1) Guyana
    • 2) Suriname
    • 3) French Guiana
    • 4) Venezuela
    • 5) Colombia
  3. The Guianas
    • *this includes Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana
    • *all are tropical areas along the Atlantic Ocean
    • *human geography differences make each country unique
    • *mostly African or Asian descent
    • *English, Dutch, and French are the spoken languages
    • *Mulattoes are also large parts of the population
    • -people of mixed African and other ancestry
    • *economies are very similar in the Guianas
    • *fish, sugar cane, and bauxite mining are important
  4. Venezuela
    • *large nation west of Guiana
    • *mostly mestizos
    • -mixed Spanish and Indian
    • -speak Spanish
    • *most people live in fertile mountain valleys
    • *poor people live in ranchos
    • -small shacks
    • *the Guiana Highlands cover about half of Venezuela
    • *Angel Falls is located in this region
    • *the llanos is important for grazing
    • -tropical grassland
    • *oil deposits have made Venezuela very wealthy
  5. Colombia
    • *second most populous country in South America
    • *borders the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean
    • *most people live in valleys between three cordilleras
    • -parallel mountain ranges
    • *Colombia is most famous for coffee
    • *illegal crops are also grown in Colombia
    • -marijuana and cocaine are illegally exported
    • *very unstable socially in Colombia
  6. Pacific South America
    • *four countries make up the Andean countries
    • 1) Ecuador
    • 2) Peru
    • 3) Bolivia
    • 4) Chile
    • *found in the Andes Mountains
    • -this is the longest unbroken mountain chain in the world
    • *3 environments are created by the mountains
    • 1) Coastal Plain
    • -includes the Atacama Desert
    • 2) Highlands
    • -plateaus are called altiplane or paramos
    • 3) Tropical Forests
    • -very few people live in the area called selva (meaning forest)
  7. Ecuador
    • *gets its name from the equator
    • *most of the people are mestizos
    • *population is divided between coasts and mountains
    • *oil is leading export
  8. Peru
    • *home of the ancient Inca Empire
    • *most people are of Inca descent
    • *poverty and unemployment are widespread
    • *many Asians have immigrated to Peru recently
  9. Bolivia
    • *one of two landlocked countries in South America
    • *Lake Titicaca is found in Bolivia
    • -this is the world's highest lake (about 12,500 feet above sea level)
  10. Chile
    • *about 2700 miles long; only 100 miles wide
    • *most people are mestizos
    • *75% of population live in the Central Valley
  11. Atlantic South America
    • *four nations make up Atlantic South America
    • 1) Uruguay
    • 2) Paraguay
    • 3) Argentina
    • 4) Brazil
    • *the Rio de la Plata is the largest river in the region
    • -this river is called an estuary because the river current meets ocean tides
    • *the highest parts of the Andes are here
    • *temperate grasslands are called Pampas
    • -the pampas were home to many gauchos (equivalent to America's cowboys)
    • *oil and bauxite found in the Patagonia Region
  12. Paraguay
    • *one of two landlocked countries in South America
    • *Rio de la Plata gives Paraguay access to the sea
    • *most of the people are mestizos
    • *economy is based on agriculture
  13. Uruguay
    • *economy based on livestock raising
    • *3/4 of the land is devoted to livestock
    • *politically unstable area
  14. Argentina
    • *South America's wealthiest country
    • *most people are of European descent
    • *led by military dictators until 1983
  15. Brazil
    • *is the largest country in South America
    • *almost half of South America's land and population are in Brazil
    • *plains and plateaus make up Brazil
    • -coastal and Amazon areas are plains
    • -inland areas are mostly plateaus
    • *an escarpment seperates the plateau from the plain
    • -a steep cliff between two level areas at different heights
  16. Northern Brazil
    • *bulges out into the Atlantic Ocean
    • *very poor region (life expectancy = 49)
    • *former Portugal colony
    • *popular region for sugar plantations
  17. Southern Brazil
    • *smallest region in Brazil
    • *economic heartland of Brazil
    • *contains almost half of the population
    • *great climate leads to productive farms
    • *biggest and most important crop is coffee
    • *Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo are the largest cities
    • -both have large slum communities called favelas
  18. Amazon River Basin
    • *tropical rain forest area
    • *populated mostly by Indians
    • *Indian population has dropped from disease
  19. Economic Growth of Brazil
    • *much of Brazil faces poverty
    • *most of the poor live in favelas or the Northeast
    • -children make up most of the poor
    • *many small farmers live in the sertao
    • -sparsely populated wilderness/"backwoods" type area
    • *poor climate and soil limit potential
  20. Policies for Growth
    • *Brazil government has adopted programs for two reasons
    • 1) Boost the growth of industry
    • 2) Encourage inland settlement/development
    • *the government built dams along the escarpment
    • *manufacturing areas grew rapidly on the coasts
    • *government began to focus on the interior
    • *capital, Brasilia, was built in the 1950s
    • -Brasilia is shaped like a bow and arrow
  21. Positive Effects
    • *Brazil is among the world leaders in industrial productivity
    • *Gasahol allowed Brazil to limit importing oil
    • -mix of gasoline and ethanol
    • *less people involved in agriculture
    • *more jobs in manufacturing and service industry
  22. Negative Effects
    • *poverty has continued to increase
    • *erosion of former rain forest areas is a problem
Card Set
Geography - South America
All About South America