clothes, posture gestures facial expressions
Arrangement: the second cannon
- the capacity to put things in order,
- Introduction (exordium)
- Statement of Facts (narratio)
- Dividsion (paritio) outline what is to follow and specify main point
- Proof (confirmatio) present arguments and supporting facts
- refutation (refutatio) refute conterargumetns
- Conclusion (peroratio) sum up claims and reinforce with emotiona appeal
- lets an audience knwo what a speach is about
- structure is
- caputure audience attention
- state topic of the speech and purpose
- relate the topic to audience
- set a tone
- preview main points
- provide a transition to the body of the speech.
closley aligned with the idea of a topic sentance in composition which is the sentence that establishes the tone and purpose of each paragraph.
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
- has a simple form and clear labels that make it easy to remember and apply on short notice
- function is th leave a lasting impression
- summerize main points
- help the audience rememver the speech
- leavce with a call to action
- clearly end your speech
- end on a postive note
has a meaningful reference to a specific and readily identifiable qualities or actiosn in order to give an audience a more vivid experience of something or event.
includes both theother words surrounding that word as well as the situation in which those words are spoken
the sense of what style is appropiate to a given situation
uses a smooth and ornate arrangement of impressive words in order to move an audience to contemplative great thoughts. such a style might be sued ina presidentail inauguration address, a ceremonial eulogy or a social movment oration
uses more common words but puts them together into a more sophisticated form than everyday speech in order to please an audience with its novelty and wit. speeches given at graduation ceremonies in courtrooms or at church servies use this style
uses only the most ordinary speech and phrasing of the day in order to present ideas in the simplest and most accessible way possible; as the goal of the plain style is kind of teaching it often is used in salesmanship in political discourse and organizational settings.
by contrast is a part of figurative style, using an image to more effectivly convey a specific idea or emotion
predictably addresses the way a speaker physically performs the speech. differs froms tyle because it deals with the actual speaking rather than the words that are spooken
these include decriptiosn of actual or hypothetical events, people objects or processes that can embody an ideal or argument in a concret form so that audience can see what it means
can prove taht something exists or has happened by drawing on personal experience of others, gives a human touch to a story by using colorful quotes to exemplify some point or appeal to the words of experts of authorities as your evidence
direct use of numeric facts and statistics are generally helpful to each other show the magnitude of something or probabilty of something
an expression of an intrest in a particular goal that the speaker finds intersting and that may have a value for an audience. in folves four chrateristics
four chracertersistics of specific purpose
- the kind of speech one is giving
- the audience to which this speechis delivered
- the occasion for the speech
- the effect on the audience that the speech is supposed to have
the specific argument taht seeks to achieve the specific purpose. it is jusually a single sentance taht sums up with the entire speech is arguing, including a claim and reason in support of that claim.
a thesis should:
- be specific
- focused ona single topic
- be audience centered
- make a clear claim
- present reasons/details
focus on provideing short, refined, effective parts of a speech that give clarity and power to specific ideas or images.
like a metaphore is called a figure of thought because it recombiens ideasl and associations in our minds
like alliteration is called a figure of speech because it deals morew with how a phrase sounds to the ears,
for something to posses thsi si for it to stand in a functional and/or referntial relationship to other things
the underlying message or principle idea that is indendedt to be conveyed
how the tenor is embodied and expressed in a specific figure
represents the storehouse of soical knwledge, conventions, public opinions, values, andshred experiences that a speaker can appela to within that speech and be confident that they will resonate meaningfully with that audience.
represents thes torehouse of beliefs phrases principles reasons experiences and examples that any particular speaker can use to construct the body of a speach
refers to the act of finding something to say (Aristotle)
allows you to organize the higlights of a speech into sectiosn and put them into a linear progression of the beginning middle and end
the power of invention often derives form the intergrity and breadth of these
the novelty of the experience the formalityof the occasiion, the subordinate status of thespeaker, the degree of conspiciousness felt by the speaker, unfamiliar enviorment the disimilarty and degree of attention from others, the degree to which one is being evaluated and prior history added to these situational factors is also the degree to which speaking anxiety for manypeople is akin to an inborn genetic predisposition.
the compliment to invention, it provides the form
topics of invention
the kidns of proof available for a public speakers