1. Cardiovascular hyponatremia
    • symptoms vary w/ changes in vascular volume
    • Normovolemic: rapid pulse rate; normal blood pressure
    • hypovelmic: thready, weak, rapid pulse rate; hypertension flat neck veins; normal or low central venous pressure
    • hypervolemic: rapix, bounding pulse; blood pressure normal or elevated; normal or elevated central venous pressure
  2. cardiovascular hypernatremia
    heart rate and blood pressure responds to vasular volume status
  3. Respiratory hyponatermia
    shallow, ineffective respiratory movement is a late manifestation related to skeletal muscle weakness
  4. Respiratory hypernatremia
    pulmonary edema if hypervolemia is present
  5. Neuromuscular hyponatermia
    generalized skeletal muscle weakness that is worse in the extremities
  6. neuromuscular hypernateremia
    • early: spontaneous muscle twitches; irregular muscle contractions
    • late: skeletal muscle weakness; deep tendon reflex diminished or absent
  7. central nervous system hyponatremia
    • headache
    • personality changes
    • confusion
    • seizures
    • coma
  8. central nervous system hypernatremia
    • altered cerebral function is the most common manifestation of hypernatremia
    • normovolemia or hypovelemia: aggitation, confusion, seizures
    • hypovelemia: lethargy, stupor, coma
  9. Gastrointestinal hyponatremia
    • increased motility and hyperactive bowel sounds
    • nausea
    • abdominal cramping and diarrhea
  10. Gastorintestinal hypernatremia
    extreme thirst
  11. Renal hyponatremia
    increased urinary output
  12. renal hypernatremia
    decreased urinary output
  13. integumentary hyponatremia
    dry mucous membranes
  14. integumentray hypernatermia
    • dry and flushed skin
    • dry and sticky tongue and mucous membranes
    • presence or absence of edema, depening on fluid volume changes
  15. Labratory findings Hyponatremia
    • serum sodium level less than 135 mEq/L
    • decreased urinary specific gravity
  16. Labratory findings hypernatremia
    • serum sodium level that exceeds 145 mEq/L
    • increase urinary speific gravity
Card Set
S/S hypo/hyper natremia