1. Nutrition
    the study of foods, their nutrients and other chemical constituents, and the effects that food constituents have on health
  2. Nutrients
    chemical substances in food used by the body for growth and health
  3. 5 types of nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • fats
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • water
  4. Photochemicals
    • chemical substances in plants that perform important functions in the human body
    • Reduce risk of some cancers, heart disease, infections, and other disorders
    • Give plants color and flavor
    • Enable plants to grow and protect themselves against insects and disease
    • Some are antioxidants
  5. Antioxidants
    • chemical substances that prevent or repair cell damage caused by oxidizing agents such as environmental pollutants, smoke, ozone, and oxygen
    • Includes pigments such as lycopene, anthocyanins and beta-carotene
  6. Nonessential nutrients
    • substances required for normal growth and health that the body can manufacture in sufficient amounts from other sources in the diet
    • do not require a dietary source
  7. Essential nutrients
    • substances required by the body that the body cannot produce (or produce in sufficient amounts) and must be obtained in the diet
    • dietary deficiency of an essential nutrient causes a specific deficiency disease (scurvy- vit. C deficiency)
    • The amounts of essential nutrients needed vary among the nutrients
  8. Calorie
    unit of measure used to express the amount of energy produced by foods in the form of heat
  9. "Energy nutrients"
    • supply energy
    • High-fat foods provide more calories per ounce than foods that contain mostly carbs or protein
  10. "Energy nutrients" for carbs
    4 Calories/gram
  11. "Energy nutrients" for proteins
    4 Calories/gram
  12. "Energy nutrients" for fats
    9 Calories/gram
  13. "Energy nutrients" for alcohol
    7 Calories/gram
  14. Calculating Calories
    • nutrient grams x calories/gram = Calories
    • ex. 15g carbs x 4 cal/g = 40 Calories
  15. Energy-dense foods
    • provide relatively high levels of calories per unit weight of food (fried foods, cheeseburgers, chips)
    • too many calories
  16. Empty-calorie foods
    • provide an excess of energy or calories in relation to nutrients (soft drinks, candy, sugar, alcohol, animal fats)
    • low in nutrients
  17. Nutrient-dense foods
    • contain relatively high amounts of nutrients compared to their calorie value (broccoli, collards, bread, cantaloupe, lean meats)
    • healthy solution
  18. "Nutrition Facts Panel"
    foods containing more than one ingredient must display a Nutrition Facts Panel
  19. Info required for Facts Panel
    • lists a standardized, reasonable portion size
    • up-front listing of total calories and calories from fat
    • the % Daily Value column shows how a food fits into the overall diet. It indicates the percentage of the recommended daily amounts contributed by a serving of the food
    • grams are counted in "total fat"
    • grams are counted in "total carbs"
    • lists % Daily Value for 2 vitamins and 2 minerals most likely to be lacking in the diet of today's consumers
  20. Daily Values (DVs)
    • scientifically agreed-upon standards of daily intake of nutrients from the diet developed for use on nutrition labels
    • represent percentages of standards (RDAs) obtained from one serving of the food product
    • *based on a 2000 calorie daily intake (60% carbs, 30% fat, 10% protein)
  21. Dietary Goals
    • dietary recommendations for carbs, fat, protein based on a percentage of total calorie intake
    • 2000 Kcals x .60 = 1200
    • 1200 kcals CHO / 4 k/g = 300 g
    • 1500 / 2000 = .75 = 75%
  22. Poor Source
    • if a % DV is 5% or less, it's a poor source
    • 10-15% is a good source
    • 20% or more is excellent
  23. Dietary Goals
    • complex carbohydrate- 48%
    • simple carbohydrate- 10% (sugar cereals- frosted flakes, fruits, cakes, cookies)
    • saturated fat- 10% (red meats, butter, hot dogs)
    • monounsaturated fat- 10%
    • polyunsaturated fat- 10%
  24. Mediterranean diet
    • Greece and Italy
    • people lie longer
    • diet rich in monounsaturated fat (olive oil)
    • 1 serving of red meat a month
  25. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
    • adequate energy and nutrients
    • reduce risk of chronic diseases
    • ranges: 45-65% kcalories from carbohydrate, 20-35% kcalories from fat, 10-35% kcalories from protein
  26. Nutrient content
    • nutrition claims on packages must conform to FDA standard definitions
    • ex. low fat is less than or equal to 3g fat/serving, lean is less than 10g fat, 4.5g saturated and trans fat, and 95mg cholesterol/serving
  27. "Jelly bean rule"
    manufacturers can't add nutrients to certain foods then claim the product is "healthy"
  28. Health claims
    • foods with scientifically agreed-upon benefits for disease prevention can be labeled with a health claim
    • the FDA approves health claims for food products that are not high in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium
  29. The ingredient label
    • all foods with more than one ingredient must have an ingredient label
    • fiber- 3g of fiber per 1/2 cup, bread = 3g per 1 slice
  30. Ingredient label requirements
    • ingredients must be listed in order of their contribution to the weight of the food, from highest to lowest
    • beverages that contain juice must list the percentage of juice on the ingredient label
    • the terms "colors" and "color added" coannot be used, the name of the specific color ingredients must be given
    • milk, eggs, fish and 5 other foods to which some people are allergic must be listed on the label
  31. Food additives
    • substances added to food
    • more than 3000 chemical additives
    • specific info about food additives must be listed on label
  32. Triglycerides
    found in food naturally
  33. Monoglycerides
    not found in food naturally
  34. Diglycerides
    not found in food naturally
  35. Nutrient claims
    fresh, healthy, extra lean, lean, free, good source, high, low cholesterol, low fat, low saturated fat, low sodium
  36. 1. Fresh
    foods are raw, not frozen or heated, and contain no preservatives
  37. 2. Healthy
    no more than 60 milligrams of cholesterol, 3 grams of fat, and 1 gram of saturated fat; more than 10% of the Daily Value of vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber; 360 milligrams or less of sodium
  38. 3. Extra lean
    • fewer than 5 grams of fat, fewer than 2 grams of saturated fat and trans fat combined, and fewer than 95 milligrams of cholesterol
    • applies to meat only
  39. 4.Lean
    • fewer than 10 grams of fat, fewer than 4.5 grams of saturated fat and trans fat combined, and fewer than 95 milligrams of cholesterol
    • applies to meat only
  40. 5. Free
    no-or no negligible amounts of-fat, sugars, trans fat, or sodium
  41. 6. Good source
    from 10 to 19% of the Daily Value for a particular nutrient or for vitamin A (beta-carotene), vitamin C, or vitamin E in the case of antioxidants
  42. 7. High
    20% or more of the Daily Value for a particular nutrient
  43. 8. Low cholesterol
    • 20 milligrams or less cholesterol
    • applies to animal products only
  44. 9. Low fat
    3 grams or less of fat
  45. 10. Low saturated fat
    1 gram or less saturated fat and .5 grams or less trans fat
  46. 11. Low sodium
    140 milligrams or less sodium
  47. Dietary supplement
    any product intended to supplement the diet
  48. Structure/function claims
    describes the effect a supplement may have
  49. The COOL rule
    • a country of origin label must appear on some products
    • helps track down foodborne illnesses
  50. Digestion
    processes that convert ingested food into substances that can be absorbed by the intestinal tract and used by the body
  51. Peristalsis
    circular and longitudinal muscles working together
  52. Absorption
    • the process by which the products of digestion are taken up by the lymphatic system and circulatory system for distribution to body cells
    • Small intestine
  53. Organic foods
    if organic growers are certified according to USDA rules, the can place the USDA Organic Seal on their labels
  54. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
    standards defined for: energy nutrients, other dietary components, and physical activity
  55. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
    average amount sufficient for half of population
  56. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
    • not daily
    • recommendations to meet needs of most healthy people (about 98% of population)
  57. Adequate Intakes (AI)
    • insufficient scientific evidence
    • AI value set instead of RDA
    • expected to exceed average requirements
    • bad
  58. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
    • point where nutrient is likely to be toxic
    • helps protect against overconsumption
    • good
  59. malnutrition
    • poor nutrition
    • results from poor diets (excess or lack of calories or nutrients), ex. vit. A toxicity, obesity, scurvy, underweight
    • results from disease states, ex. diarrhea, alcoholism, cancer, ulcers, HIV/AIDS
    • results from genetic factors, ex. high cholesterol, diabetes, heart disease, cancer
  60. Carbohydrates
    • chemical substances in foods that consist of a simple sugar molecult or multiples of them in various forms
    • sugars, starches, fiber
    • primary ingredient of staple foods (pasta, rice, beans, bread)
    • 4 links: H, O2, N3, C4
    • 3 atoms: 6 C, 12 H, 6 O
    • ratio of H to O is 2:1
    • carbo = C, hydro = water
  61. Three types of carbs
    simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and total fiber
  62. 1. Simple Sugars
    monosaccharides and disaccharides
  63. Monosaccharides
    • same numbers and kinds of atoms (differing sweetness)
    • 3 types: glucose, fructose, and galactose
  64. Glucose
    • blood sugar
    • part of every disaccharide
    • not sweet
  65. Fructose
    • fruit sugar
    • sweetest of the sugars
  66. Galactose
    • part of the milk sugar
    • only in a few foods (not found in nature by itself)
    • not sweet
  67. Disaccharides
    • not made in our bodies
    • pairs of 3 monosaccharides: maltose, sucrose, and lactose
  68. Maltose
    • *2 glucose units
    • malt sugar- beer
    • alcohol is produced by the fermentation of maltose
  69. Sucrose
    • *glucose and fructose
    • table sugar
    • *sugar causes tooth decay
  70. Lactose
    • *galactose and glucose
    • milk sugar
    • enzyme for digestion- lactase (intestinal)
  71. Problems with lactose
    lactose maldigestion- reduced digestion of lactose due to low availability of the enzyme lactase (genetically determined)
  72. Lactose intolerance
    • GI symptoms resulting from consumption of more lactose than can be digested by lactase
    • *flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea
    • *plain white milk is worst
    • dietary changes- manage dairy consumption rather than restriction (GI bacteria), fermented milk products, individualized diets, potential nutrient deficiencies (riboflavin, vit. D, and calcium)
    • cultured milk products in whcih most of the lactose is digested are generally well tolerated (lactaid)
    • cheese and yogurt are better tolerated (the more processing, the better)
  73. Condensation
    links 2 monosaccharides together
  74. Hydrolysis
    breaks a disaccharide in 2
  75. 2. Complex Carbohydrates
    • form of carbohydrate found in starchy vegetables, grains, dried beans, and many types of dietary fiber
    • the most common form of starch is made of long chains of glucose units
  76. Polysaccharide
    • another name for complex carbs
    • carbohydrates containing many molecules of monosaccharides linked together
    • 3 major types: starch, glycogen, dietary fiber
  77. Starch
    • digestible
    • storage form of energy in plants
    • composed of many glucose units (2000-26000)
    • amylose consists of straight chains of glucose
    • amylopectin consists of branched chains of glucose units from the backbone (flour, corn starch, and tapioca in amylopectin)
  78. Glycogen
    • storage form of glucose
    • complex carbohydrates
    • long chains of glucose molecules
    • produced only by animals and humans
    • stored in liver and muscles
    • we don't eat it
    • *stored in limited amounts
  79. Dietary Fiber
    • naturally occurring, intact forms of nondigestible fiber in plants and "woody" plant cell walls
    • contains nutrients and other plant substances
    • found in oat and wheat bran; plant cellulose, fruits and vegetables, raffinose in beans
  80. Digestion of Carbohydrates
    • end product of carb digestion is monosaccharide (glucose, fructose, galactose) before absorption
    • small intestine- absorption
    • *monosaccharides travel to liver via the portal vein
    • in the liver, galactose and fructose are converted to glucose
  81. Carbohydrate Functions
    • major source of energy
    • recommended intake 45-65% of total calories
    • simple sugars and complex carbs supply 4 calories/gram
  82. Glucose Functions
    • dextrose
    • principle sugar in the blood
    • glucose is the only simple sugar the body can use to form energy
    • cells in brain, blood, and kidneys require a constant supply of energy from glucose (they only accept glucose)- 150 g/day
  83. Insulin
    a hormone produced by the pancreas and released by the pancreas
  84. Glucagon
    hormone produced by pancreas and released to help raise blood glucose level
  85. Maintaining Blood Glucose Homeostasis
    • 1. when a person eats, blood glucose rises
    • 2. high blood glucose stimulates the pancreas to release insulin
    • 3. insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose into cells and storage as glycogen in the liver and muscles. insulin also stimulates the conversion of excess glucose into fat for storage
    • 4. as the body's cells use glucose, blood levels decline
    • 5. low blood glucose stimulates the pancreas to release glucagon into the bloodstream
    • 6. glucagon stimulates liver cells to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood
    • 7. blood glucose begins to rise
  86. 3 fates/steps of glucose with help of insulin
    • 1. be there for body's energy needs
    • 2. if excess carbs beyond energy needs, insulin stimulates formation of glycogen stored in liver and muscles (limited amounts)
    • 3. insulin stimulates conversion of excess glucose to fatty acids and store into fat tissues
  87. Diabetes
    • disease characterized by abnormal utilization of carbohydrates by the body and elevated blood glucose levels
    • 6% of adults worldwide
    • 10% of US adults
  88. 3 types of diabetes
    type 1, type 2, gestational (pregnancy)
  89. Type 1 diabetes mellitus
    • high blood glucose resulting from destruction of insulin-production cells of the pancreas
    • formerly juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes
    • not caused by too much sugar, lack of insulin production is problem
    • autoimmune disease that causes insulin deficiency
    • develops when the immune system destroys insulin production beta cells in the pancreas
    • triggered by medications or vital infections
  90. Managing Type 1 Diabetes
    • diets are designed to match insulin doses to keep blood glucose within normal ranges
    • carefully planned meals are consumed in specific amounts at specific times
    • physical activity improves blood glucose levels and glucose utilization
  91. Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • high bloode glucose due to the inability to use insulin normally, or to produce enough insulin
    • # 1 cause: overweight/obesity
    • people over 40
  92. Development of Type 2 Diabetes
    • years before type 2 diabetes, individuals tend to develop insulin resistance
    • insulin resistance- when cell membranes have reduced sensitivity to insulin, more insulin than normal is required to get glucose into cells
  93. Prediabetes
    condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for diagnosis of diabetes
  94. Managing Type 2 Diabetes
    • weight loss
    • regular physical activity
    • dietary management
  95. Effects of insulin
    if glucose can't get into cells: cells become starved for glucose, and cell and tissue fuctions decline, resulting in elevated triglycerides and blood pressure
  96. Health consequences of diabetes
    • short-term: blurred vision, frequent urination, weight loss, infection, delayed would healing, extreme hunger and thirst
    • long-term: heart disease, hypertension, nerve damage, blindness, kidney failure, stroke, amputation
  97. Gylcemic Index
    • carb-containing foods have a range of effects on blood glucose
    • measure of the extent to which blood glucose level is raised by a 50-gram portion
  98. Gestational Diabetes
    • 5-6% of women
    • risk depends on age, body weight, ethnicity
    • often disappears after delivery
    • increased risk of type 2 later
  99. Hypoglycemia
    • low glucose levels
    • caused by excess insulin in blood
    • symptoms: irritability, nervousness, weakness, sweating, and hunger
  100. 3. Fiber
    • a general term used to describe any material that remains undigested in the colon
    • recommended intake 28-35 grams/day
    • intake by US children and adults is low: about 15 g/day
    • *starch has an alpha 1-4 bond (digestable)
    • *cellulose (type of fiber) has a beta 1-4 bond (stronger and unbreakable
    • fiber is not caloric
  101. Types of fiber
    functional, dietary, total, soluble, insoluble
  102. Functional Fiber
    • specific types of nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial effects on health (psyllium, pectin, gels, gums)
    • effects- feeling of fullness, slows glucose absorption, prevents constipation
  103. Dietary Fiber
    naturally occurring, intact forms of nondigestible fiber in plants and "woody" plant cell walls
  104. Total fiber
    the sum of functional and dietary fiber
  105. *Soluble fiber
    • combine chemically with water
    • found in oats, barley, rye, legumes (dried beans), fruit (citrus, prunes), psyllium (metamucil), gums, pectin, and mucilages
    • benefits: slows glucose absorption and reduces fat and cholesterol absorption
    • pectin makes jelly (soluble fiber forms a gel)
    • * fat is hydrophobic
    • *lowers blood cholesterol!* (helps prevent heart disease)
  106. Bile Acids
    • emulsifer- a substance that prepares a fat for digestion
    • Fat and cholesterol need help the whole way through digestion
    • taken out of body with soluble fiber which means body needs to make new bile acids using cholesterol from the bloodstream
  107. Insoluble fiber
    • does not combine chemically with water
    • found in wheat bran (wheat, flour), some legumes, fruits, and vegetables
  108. Soluble and Insoluble benefits
    • delays onset of hunger (decreases calorie intake, helpful in weight control- reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease)
    • laxation: soluble increases moisture of stool, insoluble decreases transit in colon and increases stool weight and frequency (helpts to prevent constipation, hemorhoids, and diverticulosis)
  109. Diverticulosis
    chronic condition in which the intestinal walls of the colon develops bulges (outpockets) in weakened areas
  110. Diverticulitis
    • an acute state of infammation and infection
    • how to prevent- eat fiber!
  111. Fiber and Cancer
    • dietary fiber and colon cancer- phytochemiclas
    • preventing colon cancer- diluting, binding, and removing, and bacterial fermentation
  112. Disadvantages of fiber
    excessive fiber- insufficient energy or nutrient needs, and abdominal discomfort, gas, diarrhea, and nutrient absorption (ex. minerals), and dietary goals (balance, moderation, variety)
  113. *Whole Grain
    seed or kernal milled in its entirety
  114. *Whole Grain Parts
    • bran- outer covering, high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals
    • germ- rich in unsaturated fat, vitamins, and minerals, lower portion
    • endosperm- internal section, rich in carbohydrates/starch, small amount of protein
  115. Refined
    process of removing the bran and germ
  116. Enrichment
    • replacement of thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), iron, and folate (helps replicate cells) lost when grains are refined
    • all refined grain products must be enriched
  117. Fortification
    • addition of one or more vitamins and/or minerals
    • any food can be fortified
  118. Fat
    • type of fat is more important than total fat
    • excess calories cause weight gain, not fat
    • healthy diets provide 20-35% of calories from "healthy" fats
  119. Lipids
    • compounds that are insoluble in water and soluble in fat
    • family of lipids: triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols (cholesterol)
  120. Phospholipids
    • solubility in fat and water
    • emulsifiers in food industry- lecithin (helps smooth out fats)
    • lcithin found in egg yolk
    • roles: part of cell membrances, emulsifiers
  121. Functions of Dietary Fats
    • energy source: 9 calories/gram
    • carriers of fat-soluble nutrients (essential fatty acids, and A, D, E, K)
    • energy stores: excess calories are converted to triglycerides, 1 lb body fat- 3500 calories
    • cushion and protect internal organs
    • provide insulation against cold
    • increase flavor and palatability of food
    • contribute to the sensation of feeling full
    • components of all membranes, vitamin D, and sex hormones (more related to cholesterol)
  122. Triglycerides
    • make up 98% of our fat intake and most of our body's fat store
    • transported in blood attached to protein carriers
    • used for energy and tissue maintenance
    • glycerol backbone
    • 3 fatty acids
  123. 3 ways to classify fatty acids
    the length of the carbon chain, degree of unsaturation, and the location of double bonds
  124. 1. Length of the carbon chain
    • short-chain: 4-6 carbons (very easily absorbed)
    • medium-chain: 6-10 carbons (very easily absorbed)- cocnut oil
    • long-chain: 12-24 carbons (poorly absorbed)
    • *butyric acid (4 carbons in length)- milk and dairy products
  125. 2. Degree of Unsaturation
    based on the # of hydrogens attached to carbon chain
  126. Saturated fats
    • carbon chains saturated with the maximum # of hydrogen atoms (all single bonds)
    • solid at room temp (butter)
    • found in animal products
    • 3 oils: coconut, palm, palm kernal (liquid at room temp)
  127. Unsaturated fats
    2 or more hydrogens missing from carbon chain
  128. Monounsaturated fats
    • 2 hydrogens missing
    • 1 double bond
    • oleic acid
    • generally liquid at room temp
    • sources: olive, canola, and peanut oil, avocados, nuts: peanuts, walnuts, cashews, pistachios
  129. Polyunsaturated fats
    • 4 or more hydrogens missing
    • 2 or more double bonds
    • generally liquid at room temp
  130. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
    linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, DHA
  131. Linoleic acid
    • 4 hydrogens missing and 2 double bonds
    • in sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils
    • oils that are rich in polyunsaturated fats- corn, cottonseed, faxseed, safflower, sesame seed, soybean, sunflower, and wheat germ
  132. Alpha-linolenic acid
    • 6 hydrogens missing and 3 double bonds
    • in walnuts, dark green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, canola (monounsaturated too), and soybean oils
  133. Arachidonic Acid
    • 8 hydrogens missing and 4 double bonds
    • meat, poultry, and eggs
  134. EPA
    • eicosapentaenoic acid
    • 10 hydrogens missing and 5 double bonds
  135. DHA
    • docosahexaenoic acid
    • 12 hydrogens missing and 6 double bonds
    • EPA and DHA are found in fish and shellfish (adequate intake for adults: 500 mg/day, 8 oz fatty fish (2 meals) per week
    • salmon, anchovies, sardines, tuna
  136. 3. Location of double bonds
    based on the location of the first double bond on the Methyl End (free-flowing) of the fatty acid
  137. Omega-3 fatty acid
    • linolenic acid, DHA, EPA
    • 1st double bond between 1st and 3rd carbon
  138. Omega-6 fatty acid
    • linoleic acid, arachidonic
    • 1st double bond between 6th and 7th carbon
  139. *2 reasons to consider location
    • 1. omega 3 and 6 are essential fatty acids (components of fats required in the diet; linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids)
    • 2. omega 3's reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke and reduce stickiness of platelets in blood
  140. Chemist's view
    • degree of unsaturation- firmness (polyunsaturated fats- very vulnerables to attack by oxygen; saturated fats)
    • stability- oxidation and spoilage of fats
    • saturated fat is very stable
  141. *Techniques to prevent oxidation
    • 1. products may be sealed in air-tight, non-metallic containers, protected from light, and refrigerated
    • 2. use of antioxidants (naturally in it or added)- BHT, BHA and vit. E (vegetable oils)
    • 3. hydrogenation
  142. Hydrogenated fats
    • used to transform unsaturated fats into saturated fats- turns liquid oils into solid fats; extends shelf life of processed foods
    • hydrogenation- addition of hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids; converts natural cis form into trans fat
  143. Cis fatty acids
    • naturally in corn, cottonseed, etc
    • most common, naturally-occurring form of unsaturated fatty acid
    • contain hydrogens located on the same side of doubly-bonded carbons
  144. Trans fatty acids
    • unsaturated fatty acids in fats that contain atoms of hydrogen attached to opposite sides of carbon atoms joined by a double bond
    • trans fats- fats containing fatty acids in the trans form
  145. *Trans fats
    produced by hydrogenation: raise blood cholesterol levels more than any other type of fat; increase risk of heart disease, stroke, sudden death from heart disease, type 2 diabetes; as little as 2.2 grams/day increases risk; trans fat content requred on labels
  146. *Choosing a margarine
    • 1. liquid veggie oil
    • 2. as soft as possible (not stick)
    • 3. trans-fat free
  147. Contributions of cholesterol
    • found in all cell membranes
    • major component of nerves and brain
    • needed to produce estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D
    • cannot be used for energy
  148. *Sources of cholesterol
    • 2/3 of cholesterol is produced by the liver
    • the rest is obtained from the diet
  149. *Lipid digestion
    • fats are hydrophobic- digestive enzymes are hydrophilic
    • goal of fat digestion: dismantle triglycerides- monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol
  150. Small intestine
    • gall bladder releases bile
    • bile acts as emulsifier
    • pancreatic lipase
    • hydrolysis- triglycerides an phospholipids
  151. Bile routes
    blood cholesterol levels
  152. Lipid transport
    4 main types of lipoproteins (lipo=hydrophobic, protein=hydrophilic): chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL)
  153. Chylomicrons
    • made in GI tract wall
    • largest and least dense
    • *transport diet-derived lipids
    • liver removes remnants from blood
    • provide fat to cells
  154. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)
    • made in the liver
    • in blood stream VLDL changes to low-density lipoprotein
    • 95% of fat is in triglyceride form
  155. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
    • need receptor
    • cell needs
    • liver regulation
    • bad cholesterol
  156. High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
    • remove cholesterol from cells
    • carry cholesterol to liver for recycling
    • anti-inflammatory properties
    • good cholesterol
    • HDL's are clean-up lipoprotein
  157. Protein
    • an essential component of all living matter, and is involved in almost every biological process in the body
    • chemical substance in foods, made up of chains of amino acids
  158. Protein digestion
    end product: mostly amino acids, dipeptides
Card Set
Nutrition flash cards