The social expectations or behaviors associated with a particular status.
the Socially defined position an individual occupies
A social position assigned to a person on the basis of a characteristic over which he or she has no control such as age, sex, or race.
a social position, such as a teacher, graduate, wife, obtained through one's own efforts.
a situation that exisits when differing expectations are associated with the same role.
Symbolic Interaction Theory
the social theory stressing interaction between people and the social processes that occur within the individual that are made possible by language and internalized meanings.
A social theory that views conflict as inevitable and natural and as a significant cause of social change.
a small group, informal group of people who interact in a personal, direct, and intimate way.
a group in which the members inteact impersonally, have few emotional ties, and come together for a specific pratical purpose.
A science that has as its subject matter human behavior, social organizaqtions or society.
a group to which people feel they do not belong; they dont no share consciousness or kind, and they feel little identity to the group.
a social group to which people feel they belong and iwth which they share a consciousness of kind.
A informal primary group of people who share similar or equal status and who are usually of roughly the same age.
a group with which people indentify psychologically and to which they refer in evaluating themselves and their behaviors.
a feeling of being deprived, not because of objective conditions, but because of comparison to a reference group.
a Heirarchal, formally organized structural arrangement of an organization based on the division of labor and authority.
The study of human society and the social life and the social causes and consequences of human behavior.
the study of how goods, services, and wealth are produced, consumed, and distrubuted.
the study of power, government, and the political processes.
the study of the physical, biological, social, and cultural development of humans, often on a comparative basis.
the field in which the principles of the social sciences are applied ro actual social problems.
the view that one's own culture is superior to other and should be used as the standard against which other cultures are judged.
The system of ideas, values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, customs, and technology shared by almost everyone in a particular society.
Formal and informal rules of conduct and social expecations for behavior.
norms of conduct of everyday life that bring only mild censure or punishment if they are violoated.
norms of conduct associated with strong feelings of right or wrong, violations of which bring intense reaction and some type of punishment.
Formal, Standardized expressions of norms enacted by legislative bodiesto regulate certain types of behaviors.
Rewards and punishments used to encourage proper behavior.
the unintended consequences of a social system.
the intended consequences of a social system.
groups of persons who share in the main culture of a society but also have their own distinctive values, norms, and liufestyles.
a subculture that adheres to a set of norms and values that sharply contradict the dominant norms and values of the society of which that group is a part.
the system of knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and customs that is unique to a given group.
attempting to chenge the way a society, community, orgainzation, institution, or group is arranged so that a particular goal may be achieved.
understanding human action by examining the subjective meanings that people attach to their own behavior and the behaviors of other.
the tendency for changes in nonmaterial culture to occur more slowly than changes in technology and material culture.
the belief that cultures must be judged on their own terms rather then by the standards of another culture.
the belief that what is foregin is beat and that one;s own lifestyle, products, or ideas are inferior to those of other.
The belief that one's own time is more imporstant that the past of future.
something that is used to represent something else, such as a word, gesture, or object used to respresent some aspect of the world.
The hypothesis that societies with different languages perceieve the world differently because their members interpert the world through the grammatical forms, labels, and categories their language provides.
Th aquisition of knowledge is the ____ _____ of Social Science
all tangible things within out socitey. ( Houses, toys, art, clothes)
mostly nontangible things within our society (laws, values, beliefs, ideas)
Southern France, Coined the term "sociology", "father of sociology"
Germany, Studied social class in indrustial societies.
French, Argued that social facts are external to the individual, completed a study of suicide.
England, Coined term "survival of the fittest", proponentof evoluntionary theory, theorist who stressed a policy of non interference in human affairs and society.
Germany, Concerned with value free sociology, developed use of verstehen in social research.
a set of logically and systematically interrelated propositions that explain a particular process or phenomenon.
when humans interact, they display both intentional and unintentional behaviors. (types are exchange, cooperation, competition, conflict, and coercion.)
members are roughly equal in importance in the group.
these groups serve as sources of self- evauation and influence how we thing and act what we believe.
As the size of a group increases, ________ ________ Change.
as the size of a group increases, its _________ becomes more rigid and formal
As group size increases the _______ pf the group decreases.
a situation that exists when differing expectations are associated with the same role.
Nature vs. Nurture Debate.
a long standing debate over whether behavior results from predetermined biological characteristics or from socialization.
Society, Social Circumstances
Human behavior is shaped by _____________ and _________ _______.
________ is NOT simply a different set of labels to describe the same thing.
________ are logically interrelated set of propositions that can be tested for validity.
when incompatiable role demands develop b/c of multiple statuses.
a large social group deliberatly constructed and organized to achieve specific and clearly stated goals.
_______ ______ are what everyone would like the norms to be.
factual, How society really defines norms.
Key element to really understand who a person is (ex. race, class, gender, and sexuality.)