Sociology Test 1

  1. Role
    The social expectations or behaviors associated with a particular status.
  2. Status
    the Socially defined position an individual occupies
  3. Ascribed Status
    A social position assigned to a person on the basis of a characteristic over which he or she has no control such as age, sex, or race.
  4. Achieved Status
    a social position, such as a teacher, graduate, wife, obtained through one's own efforts.
  5. Role Conflict
    a situation that exisits when differing expectations are associated with the same role.
  6. Symbolic Interaction Theory
    the social theory stressing interaction between people and the social processes that occur within the individual that are made possible by language and internalized meanings.
  7. conflict Theory
    A social theory that views conflict as inevitable and natural and as a significant cause of social change.
  8. Primary Groups
    a small group, informal group of people who interact in a personal, direct, and intimate way.
  9. Secondary Groups
    a group in which the members inteact impersonally, have few emotional ties, and come together for a specific pratical purpose.
  10. Social Science
    A science that has as its subject matter human behavior, social organizaqtions or society.
  11. Out-Groups
    a group to which people feel they do not belong; they dont no share consciousness or kind, and they feel little identity to the group.
  12. In-Groups
    a social group to which people feel they belong and iwth which they share a consciousness of kind.
  13. Peer Groups
    A informal primary group of people who share similar or equal status and who are usually of roughly the same age.
  14. Refernce Groups
    a group with which people indentify psychologically and to which they refer in evaluating themselves and their behaviors.
  15. Relative Deprivation
    a feeling of being deprived, not because of objective conditions, but because of comparison to a reference group.
  16. Bureaucracies
    a Heirarchal, formally organized structural arrangement of an organization based on the division of labor and authority.
  17. Sociology
    The study of human society and the social life and the social causes and consequences of human behavior.
  18. Economics
    the study of how goods, services, and wealth are produced, consumed, and distrubuted.
  19. Political Science
    the study of power, government, and the political processes.
  20. Anthropology
    the study of the physical, biological, social, and cultural development of humans, often on a comparative basis.
  21. Socail Work
    the field in which the principles of the social sciences are applied ro actual social problems.
  22. Ethocentrism
    the view that one's own culture is superior to other and should be used as the standard against which other cultures are judged.
  23. Culture
    The system of ideas, values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, customs, and technology shared by almost everyone in a particular society.
  24. Norms
    Formal and informal rules of conduct and social expecations for behavior.
  25. Folkways
    norms of conduct of everyday life that bring only mild censure or punishment if they are violoated.
  26. Mores
    norms of conduct associated with strong feelings of right or wrong, violations of which bring intense reaction and some type of punishment.
  27. Laws
    Formal, Standardized expressions of norms enacted by legislative bodiesto regulate certain types of behaviors.
  28. sanctions
    Rewards and punishments used to encourage proper behavior.
  29. latent Functions
    the unintended consequences of a social system.
  30. Manifest Functions
    the intended consequences of a social system.
  31. Subcultures
    groups of persons who share in the main culture of a society but also have their own distinctive values, norms, and liufestyles.
  32. Counterculture
    a subculture that adheres to a set of norms and values that sharply contradict the dominant norms and values of the society of which that group is a part.
  33. Idioculture
    the system of knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and customs that is unique to a given group.
  34. Social Engineering
    attempting to chenge the way a society, community, orgainzation, institution, or group is arranged so that a particular goal may be achieved.
  35. Verstehen
    understanding human action by examining the subjective meanings that people attach to their own behavior and the behaviors of other.
  36. Cultural lag
    the tendency for changes in nonmaterial culture to occur more slowly than changes in technology and material culture.
  37. Clutural Relativism
    the belief that cultures must be judged on their own terms rather then by the standards of another culture.
  38. Xenocentrism
    the belief that what is foregin is beat and that one;s own lifestyle, products, or ideas are inferior to those of other.
  39. Temporocentrism
    The belief that one's own time is more imporstant that the past of future.
  40. Symbols
    something that is used to represent something else, such as a word, gesture, or object used to respresent some aspect of the world.
  41. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    The hypothesis that societies with different languages perceieve the world differently because their members interpert the world through the grammatical forms, labels, and categories their language provides.
  42. Main Goal
    Th aquisition of knowledge is the ____ _____ of Social Science
  43. Material Cultures
    all tangible things within out socitey. ( Houses, toys, art, clothes)
  44. Nonmaterial Culture
    mostly nontangible things within our society (laws, values, beliefs, ideas)
  45. Comte
    Southern France, Coined the term "sociology", "father of sociology"
  46. Marx
    Germany, Studied social class in indrustial societies.
  47. Durkheim
    French, Argued that social facts are external to the individual, completed a study of suicide.
  48. Spencer
    England, Coined term "survival of the fittest", proponentof evoluntionary theory, theorist who stressed a policy of non interference in human affairs and society.
  49. Weber
    Germany, Concerned with value free sociology, developed use of verstehen in social research.
  50. Theories
    a set of logically and systematically interrelated propositions that explain a particular process or phenomenon.
  51. Social interaction
    when humans interact, they display both intentional and unintentional behaviors. (types are exchange, cooperation, competition, conflict, and coercion.)
  52. Peer Group
    members are roughly equal in importance in the group.
  53. Reference Group
    these groups serve as sources of self- evauation and influence how we thing and act what we believe.
  54. Communication Patterns
    As the size of a group increases, ________ ________ Change.
  55. Structure
    as the size of a group increases, its _________ becomes more rigid and formal
  56. Stability
    As group size increases the _______ pf the group decreases.
  57. Role Conflict
    a situation that exists when differing expectations are associated with the same role.
  58. Nature vs. Nurture Debate.
    a long standing debate over whether behavior results from predetermined biological characteristics or from socialization.
  59. Society, Social Circumstances
    Human behavior is shaped by _____________ and _________ _______.
  60. Language
    ________ is NOT simply a different set of labels to describe the same thing.
  61. Theories
    ________ are logically interrelated set of propositions that can be tested for validity.
  62. Role Conflict
    when incompatiable role demands develop b/c of multiple statuses.
  63. Formal Organizations
    a large social group deliberatly constructed and organized to achieve specific and clearly stated goals.
  64. Ideal Norms
    _______ ______ are what everyone would like the norms to be.
  65. Real Norms
    factual, How society really defines norms.
  66. Social Location
    Key element to really understand who a person is (ex. race, class, gender, and sexuality.)
Card Set
Sociology Test 1
First sociology test