Demonstrate understanding of basic oral & dental anatomy & physiology.
Bone-Hard connective tissue that forms the framwork of the body.
Anatomic terms that pertain to the bones of the skull:
Canal-a long tube opening through bone
Condyle-a rounded surface at the articular end of the bone.
Foramen-a short opening in a bone or other sturcture.
Fossa-a pit,hollow or depression in the bone.
Meatus-an opening or tunnel through the body.
Process-a distinct projection of bone.
Septum-a thin bony layer separating two areas such as the nasal cavities.
Sinus-hollow space or opening a cavity
Suture-a rigid joint formed between two bones by cartilage or connective tissue or bone.
Tubercle-rounded elevation on the surface of tissue
What is Cranial, Facial & Hyoid bone?
Cranial Bones: (8 total bones)
Sphenoid-single bone divided into two segments: greater wing and the lesser wing
Facial Bones:(14 total bones)
Inferior Nasal Conchae-paired bones
is an integral aspect of the skull suspended between the mandible and the larynx. It provides support for the tongue and other muscles.Isn't always considered a portion of the skull but its necessary bone to several functions.
Sutures of the Skull:
Coronal-union of the partetal,frontal and sphenoid bones.
Squamosal-union of the temporal and parietal bones.
Lambdoidal- union of the parietal & occipital bones.
What are Muscles?
Muscles of mastication-muscles that are responible for facical expression allow movement in the skull.
Four pairs of muscles:
Medial pterygoid muscle
Lateral pterygoid muscle
Muscles are responsible for chewing, tearing and grinding food. they are attached to the mandible and the upper two thirds of the skull. They provide protrusion, retrusion, elevation & lateral movement of the mandible.
4 sets of muscles are paired together to contract allowing movement for the mandible to open/close.
Functions of muscles of mastication:
Elevation-moves the mandible up or in closing
Protrusion-moves the mandible forward
Retrusion-moves the mandible back
Depression-lowers or opens the mouth
Lateral excursion-moves the mandible sideways
Muscles of Facial Expression:
movement of the cheeks,lips to reveal emotions, & mastication and speech.
Depressors of the lip:mentalis,depressor labii inferiorus,anguli oris and platysma muscles.
Elevators of the lip:
levator labii superioris,anguli oris,zygomaticus major muscles.
What is Temporomandibular Joint-(TMJ)
Temporomandibular Joint-(TMJ)-Movement of the mandible. It's the only movalbe joint in the skull,with hinging of the mandible to both temporal bones. The hinged joint allows gliding motion, & hinge
action. It's attached to the cranium by ligaments.
It's made up of many structures such as: Mandible, condyle, glenoid or mandibular fossa in the temporal bone. The articular disc or meniscus between the mandibular condyle and the temporal bone.( the articular eminence). glenoid or mandibular fossa.