MM4 Replication

  1. Replication is carried out by this machine
  2. DNA replication need these ingredients
    • Template strand
    • dNTPs
    • Replisome
    • Primer
    • dNTPs are A, G, C and T
  3. What are the 3 steps of replication?
    • Initiation
    • Replication
    • Termination
  4. DNA replication begins at this point
    • Origin of Replication
    • Prokaryotes have 1, we have many
  5. This enzyme seperates DNA using ATP
  6. This protein prevents re-binding of DNA
    Single-strand binding protein
  7. This enzyme makes a small piece of RNA every 1000 bps
  8. This enzyme adds nucleotides to the template strand
    DNA polymerase III
  9. This protein keeps DNA polymerase stuck to the template
    Sliding clamp protein
  10. What does Polymerase do to prevent error?
    • Substrate specificity
    • 3'-5' Proof reading
  11. This strand is synthesized continuously
    leading strand
  12. This strand is made piece by piece
    lagging strand
  13. This is a fragment of DNA about 1000 bps long
    Okazaki fragment
  14. This enzyme removes RNA primers and replaces them with dNTPs
    • DNA polymerase I
    • it goes in the 5'-3' direction
    • proof reads also
  15. This enzyme glues the backbone together by making covalent bonds
    DNA ligase
  16. This enyme is important for twisting DNA
  17. This region is opposite the origin of replication in prokaryotes
    Termination sequence
  18. 2 main replication enzymes in humans:
    • polymerase alpha
    • polymerase delta
  19. This human enzyme adds 15 bases to the primer
    polymerase alpha
  20. This human enzyme finishes off DNA replication
    • Polymerase delta
    • proofreads too
  21. This enzyme replicates DNA in mitochondion
    Polymerase Y
  22. These human enzymes remove and replace RNA primers
    • flap endonuclease 1
    • DNA polymerase delta
  23. This repair mechanism replaces mismatched bases
    mismatch repair
  24. This repair mechanism replaces bases that have been lost
    Base exision repair
  25. Extreme sensitivity to light which can cause skin cancer
    • Xeroderma pigmentosum
    • defects in base exision repair!
  26. What are two ways we can repair breaks in the DNA?
    • Nonhomologous end joining
    • Recombination
  27. This protein is involved in nonhomologous end joining
    Ku protein
  28. Lack of this repair enzyme can cause breast cancer
  29. This process uses the enzymes of meiosis to repair breaks in DNA
    Recombination repair
  30. Image Upload 1
    DNA mismatch repair
Card Set
MM4 Replication
DNA replication, enzymes