nutra 3

  1. concentration of active ingredient is related to what 3 things
    • ontogeny (stage of development)
    • age
    • genome of plant
  2. garbling?
    removing foreign stuff
  3. why is drying the most impt part of the process
    • rid of enzyme
    • remove harmful water
    • reduce mass and vol
    • ease comminution
    • prevent microbe growth
  4. diff btwn whole plant material adn advanced plant material
    adv is reduced in size
  5. the less solvent, the ___ potent in galenicals (extracts)
  6. list extractives in order of potency
    • tincture
    • fluid extracts (liquie extract)
    • extracts - semiliquid, soft, dry
  7. crude plant material is chemically changed?
  8. extractive is chemically changed?
    maybe b/c of solvent
  9. maceration
    cold, direct heat or indirect heat method?
    what is it?
    • cold
    • extract by soaking
  10. percolation
    cold, direct heat or indirect heat method?
    what is it?
    • cold
    • aka lixiviation
    • extract by gravity
    • could make anything galenical
  11. cold infusion is only used for..
    • water soluble plants
    • also can use hot infusion
    • these are prone to oxidation
  12. which method needs a condenser? why
    decoction, infusion, digestion, percolation
    • digestion
    • prevenet loss of volatile solvenet
  13. which 2 holistic meds use decoction?
    • ayurveda
    • traditional chinese med
  14. which is good for hard material?
    digestion, decoction, or infusion
  15. which is good for soft, comminuted materials?
    digestion, decoction, or infusion
    • infusion
    • "tisana"?
  16. which has carbs so you need to refrigerate?
    digestion, decoction, or infusion
    • decoction and infusion
    • water soluble plant components
  17. which one goes by w/w?
    tincture, fluid extract, extract
  18. difference of fluidextract from tincture
    • maybe more alcohol
    • more potent
  19. advantage of liquid extract over tab and tincture
    • faster absorb than tab
    • more potent than tincture
  20. holistically balanced liquid extract guarantees what?
    constituents of the extract are in the same synergistic ratio as in the plant
  21. wet mass made with chopped plant and water drop applied to skin and cover with dressing material.
    a) poultice
    b) compress
    c) hot infusion
    d) salve
    e) plaster
    • poultice
    • 찜질
  22. cloth soaked in hot decoction or infusion and apply
    a) poultice
    b) compress
    c) hot infusion
    d) salve
    e) plaster
  23. mix of soft plant and neutral vegetable oil is heated over double boiler then oil applied.
    a) poultice
    b) compress
    c) hot infusion
    d) salve
    e) plaster
    hot infusion
  24. plant mixed with lard or margarine etc. rub on skin
    a) poultice
    b) compress
    c) hot infusion
    d) salve
    e) plaster
  25. plant or extractive is put on sticky paper/cloth, moist with water and apply.
    a) poultice
    b) compress
    c) hot infusion
    d) salve
    e) plaster
  26. what's muster muster for, how do you use?
    • inflam, pain, itch, chest to decongest, back pain
    • plaster
    • use for 10-15 min otherwise blister
  27. st john's wort oil is made by what method?
    hot infusion
  28. which can deliver lower dose and faster?
    crude plant vs. extract
  29. what are some pure plant components?
    do their compositions change over time?
    • morphine, codeine, scopolamine, caffeine, pilocarpine, ephedrine, atropine
    • no, constant composition
  30. two roles of FDA for dietary supplement
    • public safety
    • ensure the info is true and complete
  31. what's misbranding?
    what's on the label and what's inside don't match
  32. under which act, the DS manufacturer is responsible to ensure DS is safe before marketing?
  33. what does federal trade commission do?
    regulate dietary supplement advertising
  34. unlike herbal, food labels have...
    • calories
    • carb, fat, protein
  35. 5 different claims recognized by FDA for food and dietary supple.
    • structure/functional claim
    • food claim
    • health claim
    • disclaimer
    • ingredient disclaimer
  36. label of all DS should have what claimer?
    • this has not been evaluated by the FDA
    • this is not to dx, tx, prevent or cure any disease
  37. is the disclaimer for DS required by law?
    • YES
    • DSHEA
  38. can you put "chronic constipation" on the DS label?
    • no - this is a disease state
    • you can say acute, though
  39. what are the natural events that can go on DS label?
    • morning sickness of pregnancy
    • cramps and mild mood change of PMS
    • hot flash
    • spider vein
    • wrinkles
    • gases, mild memory problem, minor pain or hair loss due to aging, noncystic acne
  40. what are the life cycle events that can go on the DS label?
    • pregnancy
    • menstrual cycle
    • menopause
    • aging
  41. what are the 3 parts in the evaluation of herbals?
    • identification
    • purity
    • quality
  42. what standard should you follow to evaluate herbals?
  43. "compendial limits of tolerance"?
    • means "it should not contain n.m.t. ...%"
    • this is to determine purity of herbals
  44. how do you assess scientific (compendial) quality of herbal?
    • assay is the only way
    • %, mass unit/tab, mass unit/ml, mass unit/mass unit
  45. what does compendial mean?
  46. chemical markers are used to..
    • identify product
    • compare uniformity
    • equivalent action or potency detect
    • chem stability
  47. purpose of analytical marker
    acid active marker, identification, check reproducibility, assess stability
  48. which may be pharamcologically active?
    active, analytical, negative marker
    active (MAY, not always)
  49. does analytical marker have pharmacological action or active marker?
    npe nope
  50. negative marker?
    • unwanted plant part (toxicity or allergy)
    • USP-NF have n.m.t. requirement
  51. adulteration is regulated by...
  52. is contamination same as adulteration?
    no - its a form of adulteration
  53. admixture
    • presence of foreign material
    • (only when exceeds USP-NF limit)
  54. a-bisabolol, flavonoids, chamazulene.
    marker for...
  55. terpene lactone.
    marker for...
  56. terpenoidal saponin.
    marker for...
    ginseng roots
  57. flavonoids (hyperoside), OPC.
    marker for..
  58. b-sitosterol (phytosterol), fatty acids.
    marker for...
    saw palmetto
Card Set
nutra 3
unit 5, 6, 7 (herbs as crude material, extractive, dosage forms, labeling dietary supplement and food, eval and standardization of herbals)