1. the systematic study of human society and social interaction
  2. C. Wright Mills's term for the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society
    sociological imagination
  3. Emile Durkheim's term for patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but the exert social control over each person
    social facts
  4. in sociological research, any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary from one person, time, situation, or society to another
  5. in an experiment, the variable assumed to be the cause of the relationship between variables
    independent variable
  6. in an experiment, the variable assumed to be the cause of the relationship between variables
    dependent variable
  7. in sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure
  8. in soliological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or to the same individuals over time
  9. the systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data and draw conclusions about social life
    content analysis
  10. a research method in which researchers collect data while being part of the activities of the group being studied
    participant observation
  11. in an experiment, the group that contains the subjects who are exposed to an independent variable (the experimental condition) to study its effect on them
    experimental group
  12. in an experiment, the group that contains the subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable
    control group
  13. the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society
  14. a component of culture that consists of the physical or tangible creations (such as clothing, shelter, and art) that members of a society make, use, and share.
    material culture
  15. a component of culture that consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society (such as attitudes, beliefs, and values) that influence people's behavior
    nonmaterial culture
  16. customs and practices that occur across all societies
    cultural universals
  17. collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture
  18. established rules of behavior or standards of conduct
  19. informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture
  20. strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture
  21. formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions
  22. William Ogburn's term for a gap between the technical development of a society (material culture) and its moral and legal institutions (nonmaterial culture).
    cultural lag
  23. a group of people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differs in some significant way from that of the larger society
  24. a group that strongly refects dominant societial values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles
  25. the practice of judging all other cultures by one's own culture
  26. the belief that the bahaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture's own standards
    cultural relativism
  27. Comte's theory that societies contain forces for social order and stability
    social statics
  28. Comte's theory that societies contain forces for conflict and change
    social dynamics
  29. the capitalist class , comprises those who own and control the means of production (the tools, land, factories, and money for investment that form the economic basis of a society
  30. the working class, composed of those who must sell their labor because they have no other means to earn a livlihood.
  31. german for "understanding" or "insight" (weber)
  32. functions that are intended and/or overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit
    manifest functions
  33. unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants
    latent functions
  34. an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy)
    ideal type
  35. Erving Goffmans's term for people's efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image
    inpression management
  36. the socological approach that views society as the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups
    symbolic interactionist perspectives
  37. a statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables
  38. the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society
  39. compare sociology with common sense
    sociology promotes understanding and tolerance by enabling each of us to look beyond intuition, common sense, and our personal experiences. many of us rely on common sense gained from personal experience to help us understand our daily lives and other's behavior. commonsense knowledge guides ordinary conduct in everyday life.
  40. what are some uses of sociology?
    sociological inquiry helps us see that "things are not what they seem". sociology provides new ways of approaching problems and making decisions in everyday life
  41. based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system
    functionalist perspectives (aka: functionalism)
  42. the undesirable consequences of any element of a society
  43. examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems
  44. focuses on small groups rather than large-scale social structures
  45. what are the steps in the scientific method?
    • 1. select and define the research problem
    • 2. review previous research
    • 3. formulate the hypothesis
    • 4. develop the research design
    • 5. collect and analyze the data
    • 6. draw conclusions and report the findings
  46. what are Durkheim's four types of suicide?
    • 1. Egoistic: not attached to others, lonely
    • 2. Altruistic: too tied/attached to society
    • 3. Anomic: rules/guidelines are absent
    • 4. Fatalistic: rules/guidelines are too restrictive
Card Set
definitions and short answer