Blood Clotting System S1M2

  1. The production of Prostaglandins Thromboxane and Prostacyclin is via
    Archidonic acid being broke down by Cyclooxygenase
  2. Cyclooxygenase can be inhibited by
    Aspirin, thus it is an anticoagulant
  3. Leukotrienes are synthesized by the breakdown of
    Arachidonyl-CoA by 5-Lipoxygenase
  4. von Willebrand (vWF) does what
    Attaches to the VIII clotting factor stabilizing it, preventing it from reacting
  5. How is the VIII clotting factor released from vFW
    Thrombin releases it making it active for use
  6. What are the substances secreted by the platelets that initiate clotting, and what do each do
    • Epinephrine
    • Serotonin (vasoconstrictor)
    • Thromboxane A2 (promotes platelet aggregation)
    • Platelet activating factor
    • ADP (Attracts more platelets)
  7. When no clotting is needed what do the endothelial cells release to prevent platelet adhesion
    Prostacyclin and Nitric Oxide
  8. What is the first clotting factor to begin the cascade in the intrinsic pathway
    Factor XII
  9. What activates Factor XII
    Kininogen and PreKallikrein
  10. What clotting factors require Ca in its presence to activate
    • VII
    • IX
    • X
    • V
  11. What factors does thrombin activate
    • XI
    • V
    • VIII
    • XIII
    • VII
    • Platelets
  12. What factors are activated on the surface of platelets
    Factors XII, X, and II
  13. Why are clotting factors II so important
    It cuts certain proteins of the clotting cascade activating them, namely Va and Xa. It is also the junction of the common pathway
  14. Factor II is also known as
  15. Factor IIa is also known as
  16. What is the only serine protease in the extrinsic pathway
    Factor VII
  17. What causes the fibrous mesh
    Fibrinogen (factor I)
  18. What is the most important coagulation inhibitor and why
    Antithrombin III, Because it controls the activities of IIa, IXa, Xa, XIa, and XIIa
  19. Once collagen is damaged and exposed it triggers what
    Prekallikrein, it is the first protein to start clotting
  20. What does prothrombin (II) do
    It uses Va and Xa to make Thrombine (IIa)
  21. What is significant about thrombin if factors XII, PK and HMWK are absent
    It has the ability to circumvent them and activate XI
  22. Thrombin binds to thrombomodulin to
    Activate protein C which activates Protein S which inhibits Va and VIIIa, resulting in Stopping coagulation
  23. What does plasminogen do
    Dissolves fibrin clots
  24. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) does what
    It is activated by Thrombin and in turn impairs the plasminogens ability break down the fibrin clot
  25. The predominant form of thrombin in the blood stream is in what state
    Its inactive prothrombin state
  26. Anti-thrombin III can not function without what
  27. What are the steps for the activation of Antithrombin III
    Heparin binds to inactive antithrombin III, after binding it opens the binding site for serine protease, inactivating the serine. The serine and antithrombin disassociate with heparin and are then taken to the liver for degredation
  28. What factors are inhibited by heparin
    • XIIa
    • XIa
    • IXa
    • Xa
    • IIa
    • Thrombin
  29. What are some additional serine inhibitors
    • Alpha 2 Macroglobulin
    • Alpha 1 Antitrypsin
    • Heparin cofactor II
  30. What reaction forms the fibrin polymers in a blood clot
    Transglutaminase reaction
  31. What are the two biological agents that activate clot deformation
    • Plasminogen
    • Urokinase
  32. What is the drug administered to activate clot deformation
  33. The inhibition of clot deformation is done by what two agents
    • Alpha 2 antiplasmin
    • Plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2)
  34. What are the factors tested in a Prothrombin Time Test (PT)
    • VII
    • X
    • V
    • II
    • I
    • Measures extrinsic pathway
  35. What are the factors measured in Activated partial thrombo blastin time (PTT)
    • XII
    • XI
    • IX
    • VIII
    • X
    • V
    • II
    • I
    • Intrinsic Test
  36. PTT is used to detect the effect of what drug
  37. PT is used to detect the effectiveness of what drug
    • Warfarin
    • Coumarin
  38. Thrombin time is used to measure what therapy
    • Heparin
    • Fibrin Clot therapy
  39. Bleeding time is used to measure what
    • Abnormal Platelet function
    • Aspirin
    • von Willebrand Disease
  40. Vit K is important for clot formation why
    Vitamin K makes it possible for factors II, VII, IX, and X to bind to the membranes of platelets
  41. How does Vitamin K assist in the binding of clot factors to the plasma membrane
    It adds carboxyl groups to them
  42. What drug blocks the effects of Vitamin K
Card Set
Blood Clotting System S1M2