mental health2

  1. What lobe of the brain is involved w/ Schizophrenia?
    Frontal...= decr. in abstract reasoning, decision making, socializing, goal planning, insight, motivation
  2. What MH are assoc. w/ the temporal lobe?
    Schizophrenia, depressive disorders, PTSD, ETOHism, Alzheimers...temporal lobes connect w/ limbic system which is our "tmotional brain" that allows expression of emotions (eg. sexual, aggressive, fear...)
  3. What is the impact of MAOI on neurotransmitter function?
    MAOI= Monoamine oxidase inhibitors destroy monoamine oxidase which is an enzyme that destroys nonrepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and serotonin...allowing for more of these neurotransmitters at the synapse
  4. What are the typical antipsychotics?
    She Thought Pretty Navels Had Melons
    • Stelazine
    • Thorazine
    • Prolixin
    • Navane
    • Haldol
    • Mellaril
  5. What are some of the atypical antipsychotics?
    Always Remember Clean Giraffes See Zebras
    • Abilify
    • Risperdal
    • Clozaril
    • Geodon
    • Seroquel
    • Zyprexa
  6. What is the gneral emergency tx for agitated pts?
    • -Zydis (PO fizzy tab)
    • -Geodon (IM)
    • -B-52: Haldol, Ativan, Cogentin
    • -any injectible older drugs but watch for EPS
  7. What is the s/e of Clozaril?
    agranulocytosis, pt. must have weekly CBCs
  8. What is the s/e of Zyprexa?
    weight gain, metabolic syndrome
  9. What is the s/e of Risperdal?
    orthostatic hypotension
  10. What is the s/e of Seroquel?
    orthostatic hypotension
  11. What is the s/e of Geodon?
    orthostatic hypotension, dysrhythmias
  12. What is Abilify?
    an is a dopamine system areas of the brain w/ excess dopamine it lowers it, and in areas w/ decr. dopamine it stimulates receptors to raise the dopamine level, acting as a dopamine agonist
  13. What is an oculogyric crisis?
    usually result of typicals, a dystonic reaction when the eyes shoot to the top of the head and the pt. can't bring them down
  14. What is the tx for a dystonic rxn?
    • congentin or benadryl...
    • hold the causatory med until consult w/ MD
  15. When is the highest time of risk for a dystonic rxn?
    1-5 days
  16. What is the time of risk for Pseudoparkinsonism? What is the tx?
    • -weeks to months
    • -tx is cogentin or symmetrel
  17. Discuss Cogentin
    Cogentin= an Anticholinergic that blocks the EPS of medications, but can cause delirium in the extreme

    "hot as a hare, blind as a bat, dry as a bone, red as a beet, and mad as a hatter"

    s/e: dry mouth, blurred vision, hot dry skin and hyperpyrexia, mental statues changes
  18. Discuss Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
    • -occurs from dopamine blockade...main thing we want to watch for is high fever, but also HTN, incr. muscle tone, sweating, tachycardia, drooling...
    • -D/C med, tx in ICU w/ Dantrium and Parlodel
  19. What is alogia?
    poverty of thought
  20. What is avolition?
    lack of motivation
  21. What is anhedonia?
    inability to experience pleasure
  22. Discuss the positive symptom of Shizophrenia that is negativism/resistance
    • active negativism= pt does the opposite
    • passive negativism= pt does not perform basic ADLs
  23. What is the general function of dopamine?
    • (dopamine=excitatory)
    • -abstract thinking
    • -integrationof emotions and thoughts
    • -decision making
    • -stimulates heart, incr. bloodflow to organs
    • -controls muscle movement and coordinations
    • -fine muscle movement
  24. What are the general functions of noradrenaline?
    • noradernaline = excitatory
    • -selective attention and cognition
    • -mood
    • -stimulates ANS for Fight or Flight
    • -pulse and BP regulation
  25. What are the general functions of serotonin?
    • -serotonin= excitatory
    • -mood regulation
    • -cognition
    • -grooming
    • -sexual function
    • -panic attacks
    • -sleep/wake cycle
    • -appetite
  26. What are the general functions of histamine?
    • histamine= excitatory
    • -alertness
    • -inflammatory response
    • -stimulates gastric secretion
  27. What are the general functions of GABA?
    • GABA= inhibitory
    • -reduces anxiety
    • -reduces excitation
    • -reduces agression
  28. What are the general functions of Glutamate?
    • glutamate= excitatory
    • -plays a role in learning
  29. What are the general functions of Acetylcholine?
    • -w/ Ach think demintia, Alz....
    • a decr. in Ach= decr inhibition, decr memory, euphoria, constipation, tachycardia

    -an incr. in Ach =over inhibition, anxiety, depression, diarrhea, bradycardia
  30. Incr. in Dopamine=
    Schizophrenia, Mania
  31. Decr. in Dopamine=
    Parkinsons, depression
  32. Incr. in norepinephrine=
    mania, anxiety, Schizophrenia
  33. Decr. in norepinephrine=
  34. Incr. in serotonin=
    anxiety, serotonin syndrome (watch for hypertensive crisis!)
  35. Decr. in serotonin=
  36. incr in histamine=
    hyperactivity, compulsivity, suicidal depression
  37. decr. in histamine=
    sedation, weight gain, hypotension
  38. incr in GABA=
    reduction of anxiety
  39. decr. in GABA=
    mania, anxiety, Schizophrenia
  40. incr. NMDA/glutamate=
    prolonged activation kills neurons
  41. Decr. NMDA/Glutamate?
  42. Incr acetylcholine=
  43. decr Acetylcholine=
    Alz disease, huntingtons chorea, parkinsons
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mental health2
mental health2