Bio 101

  1. Cell Plasma Membrane
    Composed of fluid-like phospholipid bilayer, proteins, cholesterol and glycoproteins.
  2. Cell Wall
    Outside of cell membrane in some organisms; composed of carbohydrates (cellulose or chitin) or carbohydrate derivative (peptidoglycan)
  3. Cytoplasm
    • Material outside nucleus
    • 1. site for metabolic activity
    • 2. Cytosol: solutions with dissolved substances such as glucose, CO2, O2, etc.
    • 3. Organelles: Membranebound subunits of cells with specialized functions.
  4. Cytoskeleton
    Supportive and metabolic structure composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
  5. Prokaryotic cells
    Simpler cellular organization with no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.
  6. Eukaryotics cells
    Comples cellular organization
  7. Membrane of Eukaryotic cells
    Bound organelles including nucleus, nuceolus, rough endoplasmaic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, peroxisome, chloroplast, chromoplast, leukoplast, mitochondrion, vacuole.
  8. Nucleus
    Single atom

    Contains DNA/chromosomes, control cellular activites via genes.
  9. Nucleolus
    Located within Nucleus, site for ribosomes synthesis
  10. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    With ribosomes, involved protein synthesis
  11. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    without ribosomes, involved primarily in lipid synthesis
  12. Golgi apparatus
    Packaging center for molecules; carbohydrate synthesis
  13. lysosome
    Contains hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion
  14. Peroxisome
    Involved in hydrogen peroxide synthesis and degradation
  15. Chloroplast
    site of photosynthesis

    Contains DNA
  16. chromoplast
    non green pigment
  17. Leukoplast
    stores starch
  18. Mitochondrion
    ATP production
  19. Vacuole
    General storage and space filling structure. Water cavity in cell
  20. Diffusion
    movement from an area of high to low concentration
  21. Osmosis
    Diffusion across a semi-permable membrane
  22. Endocytosis

    • Phagocytosis-cell eating
    • Pinocytosis-cell drinking
  23. Exocytosis
    Expelling materials from cell
  24. Proton
  25. electron
  26. neutron
  27. Hydrogen atom
    More nutrons-remains neutral
  28. Carbon atom
    Positive charge

    Water has a positive charge
  29. Isotopes
    Different forms of an element

    Unstable Isotopes / radio Isotopes
  30. Chemical bond
    losing, gaining or sharing electrons
  31. Maximum number is electrons
    • Inner shell 2
    • Outshells 8
  32. Matter
    • Stuff with mass
    • Weight & mass are synonyms
  33. Atomic number is?
    • # of atoms in chart
    • # of protons in atom
  34. Valence shell
    Most outside shell, will never have more than 8 e-
  35. Ion
    Atom with a charge

    Lost or gain of an eletron.
  36. Isotopes
    Same elements Different masses

    Due to different number of of nuetrons
  37. Molecule
    Two or more atoms linked together
  38. Chemical compounds
    Molecules with two or more different elements

    such as water= H20
  39. Covalent bond
    Shared valance

    Strong e- shared in pairs.
  40. Diatomic
    2 atoms in a molecule
  41. Hydrogen bond
    forms between oppositely charged area of covalent bonds

    Polar molecules Water is polar
  42. Covalent bonds
    Non Covalent bonds
    Hydrogen bonds
    • Covalent
    • Two pairs double bond
    • Three triple bond covalent

    Non covalent is much weaker

    Hydrogen is the attraction between particular charges. Holds biological molecules together.
  43. Of acid or base with is higher
    Base is 14

    Acid is 0

    Neutral is 7
  44. Carbs
    Sugars, starch (plants create and store), glycogen ( only humans), cellulose (can not be digested), chitin (shell of fish), energy sources
  45. Lipids
    fats and oils
  46. Proteins
  47. Nucleic acids
  48. Buffers
    controls PH

    • Weak acid or base
    • Accepts H+ when PH is low
    • Releases H+ when PH is high
  49. Monomers
    Basic building blocks
  50. Polymers
    Chains of monomers bonded together
  51. Ribosome
    where proteins are made
  52. lysosomes
    Made by gogli
  53. Mitochondria
    • Breaks down sugars
    • contains DNA
  54. ATP
    Universal storage modular

    Can be used by any cell in any form

    Like cash
  55. Microtubes
    • like rigatoni. stronger, more supportive
    • rope like, movements within cells
  56. Microfiliment
    Spagetti like

    Kitchen twine...several tiny threads to create one strong thread
  57. Cell junction
    Holds cell walls together in bond, leak proof. nothing moves between cells
  58. Anchoring junction
    Hooks that go between cells but allow small molecules to pass between the cell walls such as water.
  59. Gap junctions
    Channels that allow molecules to pass between cells.
  60. Plasmodemata
    channels within only plant cells
  61. Hormones
    cause cells to talk and work long distances.

    Travel in sap in plants.
  62. Nucleotides
    are the building blocks of DNA
  63. Water is?
  64. Oil is?
    Non polar
  65. a velsicle moving towards the plasma membrane is an example of?
Card Set
Bio 101
Bio 101 cpt 456