1. is when an RH negative gives birth to a RH positive child. This means the dad has to be RH positive. During birthing process fetal blood crosses the placenta barrier and gets into the mothers blood. This will cause her to make antibodies against RH positive factor. Next pregnancy we have another RH positive child the mothers blood will now contain RH positive antibodies that will cross back to the fetus and start attacking the fetal blood causing a glutination
    Erythroblastosis Fetalis
  2. There are 5 types; Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes, and Monocytes
    Leukocytes or WBC
  3. are 70%. They are elevated during acute bacterial infection
  4. are elevated with parasitic infections or allergies
  5. are the rare ones in the blood only 1%. They are elevated most definitely during allergies releasing histamine and are also present with chicken pox and diabetes mellitus
  6. is a chemical substance released by the basophils. It causes runny nose, itchy water eyes
  7. represent 25% of WBC. They are responsible for producing antibodies and also t cells. They are elevated during viral infection, cancer and bacterial infection
  8. exit the circulatory system, when this happens they mature into macrophages. They will be elevated during chronic infections, viral infections and fungal infections. They linger the longest after an infection doing the cleanup work and they neutralize the left over parts so your body doesn’t have further allergic reaction to those parts
  9. are phagocytes, which means they gobble things up. They engulf the bacteria and have enzymes that dissolve its cell wall
  10. means your WBC count is below five thousand. This can be from heavy metal poisoning, radiation
  11. is when your WBC count is above ten thousand.
    This can be present from any infection; fungal, bacterial or viral. Emotions, allergies, and leukemia can also increase count
  12. are made from megakaryocytes. They help you for platelet plugs or clots (clotting molecules), are vassal constrictors, and dissolve clots when needed. They
    attract WBC to the area helping with the broken line of defense reducing the possibility of getting an infection. They secrete growth factors cells
  13. in blood vessels are coated with a platelet repellent which would be similar to a teflon coating
  14. is accomplished by cascade of chemical reactions. Most clotting factors are secreted by the liver
  15. of blood is very important in the circulatory system. When dilution occurs Thrombin can accumulate. It is normally is pretty dilute in blood
  16. are floating around in the blood to help with clotting. Heparin would be an example that is found in the blood
  17. is secreted by basophils
  18. is a condition of abnormal clotting of the blood which would result in a stroke. It is a clot that may be large enough to block a blood vessel
  19. is a broken piece of thrombosis that can travel a distance with the possibility of blocking an artery causing tissue death or infarction
  20. are common in legs, veins of inactive people. Anti-embolism socks maybe required. If this is present you may be asked to take aspirin, or coumadin
    Blood Clots
  21. may require aspiration biopsy scientology
    Bone Marrow Disorder
  22. is the marrow taken from the iliac crest or the sternum. Transplants are usually done intravenously.
    Myeloid Tissue
  23. is due to blood loss like a hemorrhage, a bone marrow disorder, ulcer, and menstruation. It can also be caused from chemo or radiation treatments
  24. is poorly developed RBC
    Aplastic Anemia
  25. is a common anemia that occurs when iron loss (often from intestinal bleeding or menses) occurs, and/or the dietary intake or absorption of iron is insufficient. In such a state, hemoglobin, which contains iron, cannot be formed. This is most common deficiency worldwide
    Iron Deficiency Anemia
  26. is due to a vitamin b 12 deficiency. A molecule called Intrinsic factor is produced by stomach cells. This affects alcoholics, vegetarians. B12 can be taken various ways, shots or absorption from under the tongue
    Pernicious Anemia
  27. pertains to folic acid that is a b vitamin (B9). This is dangerous for expecting mothers which the risk of spinal bifida to the child
    Folate Anemia
  28. is more common in Africans and African American about 1 in 500 actually have it. It is recessive so most that have it are carriers. Parts in Africa ½ are carries but protects against malaria making it a fair trade off
    Sickle Cell Anemia
  29. Cardiovascular systems are divided to 2 systems
    Pulmonary and Systemic
  30. Cardiovascular system that supplies the blood to the lungs
    Pulmonary Circuit
  31. Cardiovascular system that supplies the blood to everything else
    Systemic Circuit
  32. Heart lies in the pericardial cavity that is coated with tissue called
  33. lines the outside cavity of heart itself
    Parietal Pericardium
  34. lines the heart
    Visceral Pericardium
  35. Fluid between the Parietal Pericardium and Visceral Pericardium is referred to as ______________, which is there to keep friction from happening
    pericardial fluid
  36. is inflammation of the tissue due to friction or rubbing (very painful)
  37. is the outside which is synonymous with the visceral pericardia
  38. Underneath the Epicardium is the muscle called the
  39. is the inside of the heart
  40. is the failure of a valve to prevent reflux (reflux meaning blood should not be allowed back into the upper chambers). The mitral value is the one that is mainly affected, this is called mitral valve prolapsed. About 1 in 40 individuals have this, it can be hereditary. A lot of times valves can get attacked by an infection like rheumatic fever
    Valvular Insufficiency
  41. is the actual circulation going to the heart itself feeding the myocardium. These blood vessels for this circulation are on the heart wall. The heart is not feed by the blood it pumps it is fed by the arteries on the heart wall
    Coronary Circulation
  42. comes from ischemia (lack of blood supply) causing hypoxia (lack of oxygen to the tissues) which is caused by a blood clot or atherosclerosis or quite often a combination of the two
    Myocardial Infarction
  43. is a condition of temporary and reversible myocardial ischemia. This means for a moment we have a lack of
    blood supply causing lactic acid to build very fast. This causes heart pain but tissue is not dead. This won’t occur until blockage is 75% or greater
    Angina Pectoris
  44. muscles that normally works off aerobic respiration, it never fatigues. It has large stores of oxygen (myoglobin), glycogen (for storing glucose) keeping the heart from getting into fermentation
  45. is located on the right atrium. It is known as the pace maker of the heart that sets the rhythm. It sends signals to AV node, pace maker takes over for this
    SA Node
  46. is the electrical gateway to the ventricles controlling the ventricle contractions
    AV node
  47. takes over if an SA node is damaged.
    In other word something else is going to grab responsibility to keep you alive, most of the time it is AV node that does it, this usually drops the beats per minute to the 40-60 range
    Ectopic Focus
  48. is when the AV node has taken over
    Nodal Rhythm
  49. Abnormal
    cardiac rhythm is referred to as __________ or ___________. Heart monitors which monitor heart rhythm by doing electro cardio gram
    Arrhythmia and Disarrhythmia
  50. is produced when signal from SA node fires causing atrial systole will begin during PQ segment
    P wave
  51. is the time required to go from SA node to AV node and atrial contractions will begin during PQ segment
    PQ wave
  52. marks the firing of the AV node and ventricle systole begins just after QRS complex and during ST segment
    QRS wave
  53. is ventricular depolarization that happens diastole or resting then it starts all over again
    T wave
  54. is when atrial is beating very fast but organized at 200-400 beat, and person is still alive. It is caused by
    taking too much drugs or stimulants, excessive stress and/or sleep deprivation
    Atrial Flutter
  55. is not a heart beats but more of a spasm 600-800 beats per minute, not pumping well
    A Fib
  56. has an uncoordinated worm like movement and is not pumping blood at all. Cardiac arrest will eventually kill very quickly if not stopped
    B Fib
  57. consists of a one complete contraction and relaxation
    Cardiac Cycle
  58. is referred to the amount of blood ejected by the heart in one minute, which would normally be 4-6 liters
    Cardica Output
  59. is listening to the heart and/or bodily sounds
  60. is the failure of either of the ventricle to eject blood properly or efficiently, caused by a weakened heart muscle which could be from a MI (myocardial infarction) or by chronic hyper tension, valvular insufficiencies or congenital defects
    Congestive Heart Failure
  61. Left ventricle fails to pump blood which will cause blood to back up into the lungs
    Pulmonary Ademia
  62. Right ventricle fails to pump blood you will get
    Systemic Ademia
  63. molecules in the body like epinephrine and norepinephrine increase heart rate are cardiac stimulants that are produced by the adrenal medulla which responding to arousal, exercise and stress
  64. is resting heart rate too high (over 100 bpm)
  65. is resting heart rate below 60 bpm, but can be common in athletes
  66. comes out of brain stem and maintains back ground firing of your heart creating vagal tone. If severed heart rate will increase over 100 bpm, so it keeps the heart sedated
    Vagus Nerve
Card Set
AP2Feb14 April