chapter 13 psychology

  1. personality
    the psychological qualities of an individual that influence a variety of characteristic behavior patterns accross difference situations and over time
  2. personality type
    distinct pattern of personality characteristics used to assign people to categories; qualitative differences, rather than differences in degree, used to discriminate among people
  3. trait
    enduring personal quality or attribute that influences behavior accross situation
  4. five-factor model
    a comprehensive descriptive personality system that maps out the relationships among common traits, theoretical concepts, and personality scales; informally called the Big Five
  5. consistency parodox
    the observation that personality ratings across time and mong different observers are consisten while behavior ratings across situations are not consistent
  6. psychodynamic personality theory
    theory of personality that shares the assumption that personality is hsaped by and behavior is motivated by inner forces
  7. libido
    the psychic energy that drives individuals toward sensual pleasures of all types, especially sexual ones
  8. shyness
    an individual's discomfort and or inhibition in interpersonal situations that interferes with pursuing an interpersonal professional goal
  9. fixation
    a state in which a person remains attached to objects or activities more appropriate for an earlier stage of psychosexual development
  10. psychic determinism
    the assumption that mental and behavioral reactions are determined by previous experiences
  11. unconscious
    the domain of the psyche that stores repressed urges and primitive impulses
  12. id
    the primitive, unconscious part of the personality that represents the internalization of society's values, standards, and morals
  13. superego
    the aspect of personality that represents the internalization of society's values, standards, and morals
  14. ego
    the aspect of personality iinvolved in self preservation activities and in directing instinctual drives and urges to appropriate channels
  15. repression
    the basic defense mechanism by which painful or guilt-producing thoughts, feelings, or memories, are excluded from conscious awareness
  16. ego defense mechanism
    mental strategy (conscious or unconscious) used by the ego to defend itself against conflicts experienced in the normal course of life
  17. anxiety
    an intense emotional response caused by the preconscious recognition that a repressed conflict is about to emerge into consciousness
  18. collective unconscious
    the part of an individual's unconscious that is inherited, evolutionarily developed, and common to all members of the species
  19. archetype
    a universal, inherited, primitive, and symbolic representation of a particular experience or object
  20. analytic psychology
    a branch of psychoology that view the person as a constellation of compensatory internal forces in a dynamic balance
  21. self-actualization
    a concept in personality psychology referring to a person's constant striving to realize his or her potential and to develop inherent talents and capabilities
  22. unconditional positive regard
    complete love and acceptance of an individual by another person, such as a parent for a child, with no conditions attached
  23. psychobiography
    the use of psychological (especially personality) theory to describe and explain an individual's couse through life
  24. expectancy
    the exten to which people believe that their behavior in particular situations will bring about rewards
  25. locus of control
    people's general expectancy about the extent to which the rewards they obtain are contigent on their own actions or on environmental factors
  26. reciprocal determinism
    a concept of Albert Bandura's social-learning theory that refers to the notion that a complex reciprocal interaction exists among individual, his or her behavior, and environmental stimuli and that each of these components affects the others
  27. self-efficacy
    the set of beliefts that one can perform adequately in a particular situation
  28. social intelligence
    a theory of personality that refers to the expertise people bring to their experience of life tasks
  29. self-concept
    a person's mental model of his or her abilities and attributes
  30. possible self
    one of the ideal selves that a person would like to become, the selves of a person could become, and the selves a person is afraid of becoming; components of the congnitive sense of self
  31. self-esteem
    a generalized evaluative attitude toward the self that influences both moods and behavior and that exerts a powerful effect on a range of personal and social behaviors
  32. self-handicapping
    the process of developing, in anticipation of failure, behavioral reactions and explanations that minimize ability deficits a s possible attributions for the failure
  33. independent construal of self
    conceptualization of the self as an individual whose behavior is organized primarily by reference to one's own thoughts, feelings, and actions, rather than by reference to the thoughts, feelings and actions of others
  34. interdependent construal of self
    conceptualization of the self as part of an encompassing social relationship; recognizing that one's behavior is determined, contigent on, and to a large extent organied by what the actor perceived to be the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
  35. personality inventory
    a self-report questionnaire used for personality assessment that includes a series of items about personal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
  36. projective test
    a method oef personality assessment in which an individual is presented with a standardized set of ambigiou, abstract stimulu and asked to interpret their meanings; the individual's responses are assumed to reveal inner feelings; motives, and conflicts
Card Set
chapter 13 psychology
understanding human personality