1. what is the term for particulate and electromagnetic rad with sufficient energy to remove orbital electrons from atoms
    ionizing rad
  2. true/ false
    wavelenght determines the strength and penetrating power of the rad; the longer the wavelength the greater the strength and penetrating power of the rad.
  3. true/ false
    voltage measures the electric potential or force that moves electrons along a conductor
  4. true/ false
    increasing the force with which the electrons move will increase the penetrating potential of the x-ray
  5. all of the followings are components of the dental x-ray tubehead except;
    insulating gas, oil
    step up transformer
    aluminium filter disk
    lead collimator plate
    radioactive material
    radioactive material
  6. what percent of the kinetic energy inside the tube is actially conveted to x-rad
  7. production of xray energy when a high speed electron dislodges an inner shell electron,causing a rearrangement of outer shell electrons to fill the vacancy?
    characteristic rad
  8. terms refers to rad that is deflected in all difections by the cliends tissues
  9. to get the greates increase in the amount of radiation produced in a .5second explosure, the operator must increase
  10. thet best image a bony impartion of a maxillary third molar, which should the operator increase
  11. PID lengths prodices an x-ray bean that is less divergent
    16 inches
  12. which Factors remaining constant an increase in film speed will
    increase radgraphic density
  13. which Factors remaining constant an decrease in exposure time will
    decrease rad density
  14. decreasing all of the following except one would result in decreased film density, which one is the exception
    exposure time
    developing tiem
  15. effect of rad damage to cells that occurs through the radiolysis of h2o
  16. what is responsible for recording the image on a radiograph film
    silver halide crystal
  17. chemicals in fixing solution that functions to remove unexposed/underdevelop silver halide crystals from the emulsion
    sodium thiosulfate
  18. characteristics of electomagnetic rad, except one
    some can ionize human tissues
    include visible and ultraviolate light
    trave in oscillating motion
    include alpha and beta particles
    energies vary in wavelength
    include alpha and beta particles
  19. anode electrode is
    source of x-ray
  20. step down transformer is responsible for all of the following except
    supplies current to the cathode electrode
    is operated by the mA switch
    decreases electrical current
    creates a potential difference
    creates a potential difference
  21. what is bremsstrahlung rad
    x-ray photons generated as a result of particle interaction at or near the nucleus of target atoms
  22. which is the most common method of altering film density
    adjusting the kvp
  23. collimation of the xray beam produces all of the followng outcomes exccept one.
    increases intensity of xray beam
    restricts size of xray beam
    reduces exposure to pt
    minimizes image magnification
    improves image sharpness
    increases intensity of xray beam
  24. long scale contrast demostrates
    broad range of densities on the processed radiograph
  25. in the developer what is the func of the resucing agent hygroquinone
    reaction provides the black tones and constrast of the image
  26. identify the source of electrons used for the production of xray
    tungsten filament
  27. generation of x-rad
    increase in density, the film appears darker
  28. increasing the mA will cause
    increase in density, the film appears darker
  29. describe long scale contrast
    also known as low constrast, seeing many shades of gray
  30. a free radical
    • uncharged molecule
    • reactuve and unstable
    • combines with molecules to form toxins
  31. increasing the time and ma setting on the exposure panel will
    increase the quantity of rad
  32. identify the most radiation sensitive pirtion of the cell
  33. inverted Y represents the intersection of the nasal cavity and the
    maxillary sinus
  34. manual processing, notice light whiter spots on the film, this errors is
    • fixer solution
    • water
  35. too much vertical angulation, results
  36. 70 kvp or greater are required to operate with a minimun of
    2.5 mm aluminum filtration
  37. which of the followings is used to reduce the size and shape of the x-ray beam
    lead diaphragm
  38. from D to E speed film, the exposure time should be
  39. xrays are generated when a steam of electrons traveling from one side of an eray tube is suddenly stopped by its impact on the
    tungsten targtet of the anode
  40. which of the following reduce the number of low energy x ray (long wavelength) in the beam
    aluminum filtration
  41. image magnification results from decreased
    target size
  42. diameter of the useful beam at the end of the PDI should not exceed
  43. radiographs left in fresh fixer for a long period of time
    decrease in density
Card Set
dental radiology