promise made in 1916 during World War I by Germany to the United States prior to the latter's entry into the war. Early in 1916, Germany had instituted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare,
allowing armed merchant ships – but not passenger ships – to be
torpedoed without warning. Despite this avowed restriction, a French
cross-channel passenger ferry, the Sussex, was torpedoed without warning on March 24, 1916; the ship was severely damaged and about 50 lives were lost.
first woman in the U.S. Congress. A Republican, she was elected statewide in Montana in 1916 and again in 1940. A lifelong pacifist, she voted against the entry of the United States into both World War I and World War II, the only member of Congress to vote against the latter. She is the only woman
War to End All Wars
term used to describe World War I.
become one of the most common catch-phrases of the war
informal term for an American soldier, especially members of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in World War I. The term dates back to the Mexican–American War of 1846–48.
The term was used sparingly during World War II, gradually replaced by the appellations "G.I.", "Troop", or "Dogface", but was still used in popular songs of the day, as in the 1942 song "Johnny Doughboy found a Rose in Ireland." It dropped out of popular use soon after World War II.
an American financier, stock-market speculator, statesman, and political consultant. After his success in business, he devoted his time toward advising U.S. Presidents Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt on economic matters.
War Labor Board
ederal agency created in April 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson. It was composed of representatives from business and labor, and chaired by Former President William Howard Taft.
Its purpose was to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers in
order to ensure labor reliability and productivity during the war. It
was disbanded after the war in May, 1919.
Overall, the decisions of the NWLB generally supported and
strengthened the position of labor. Although it opposed the disruption
of war production by strikes, it supported an eight-hour day for
workers, equal pay for women, and the right to organize unions and
bargain collectively. Although the NWLB did not have any coercive
enforcement power, public opinion and support from President Wilson
generally ensured compliance with its decisions.
In general, the relative strength of organized labor in America grew
substantially during the war. Union membership almost doubled after the
formation of the NWLB
n American athlete who, after being a popular outfielder in baseball's National League during the 1880s, became the most celebrated and influential American evangelist during the first two decades of the 20th century.
violent deaths of 19 people:42 during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914. The deaths occurred after a day-long fight between strikers
and the Guard. Two women and eleven children were asphyxiated and
burned to death. Three union leaders and two strikers were killed by
gunfire, along with one child, one passer-by, and one National
Guardsman. In response, the miners armed themselves and attacked dozens
of mines, destroying property and engaging in several skirmishes with
the Colorado National Guard.
Women's Peace Party
first autonomous national women's political organization in the United States. WPP is known as the most radical women's organization of its time. In late 1914, Jane Addams was encouraged to start an organization strictly for women in an effort to protest for peace.
WPP demanded that women connect their responsibilities within the home
with political rights. Some of the most prominent leaders were
settlement-house leaders Jane Addams and Lillian Wald, suffrage leader Carrie Chapman Catt, labor advocate Crystal Eastman, and peace advocates Fannie Fern Andrews and Fanny Garrison Villard.
Jane Addams was named chairwoman, and later president of its
international counterpart, International Committee of Women for
Permanent Peace. Some obstacles faced by the group include gender barriers and separateness as a women's organization.
Committee on Public Information
investigative journalist, a politician, and, most famously, the head of the United States Committee on Public Information, a propaganda organization created by President Woodrow Wilson during World War I.
He said of himself that "an open mind is not part of my inheritance. I
took in prejudices with mother's milk and was weaned on partisanship."
War Revenue Act 1917
greatly increased federal income tax rates while simultaneously lowering exemptions.
The 2% bracket had previously applied to income below $20,000. That
amount was lowered to $2,000. The top bracket (on income above $2
million) was raised from 15% to 67%.
The act was applicable to incomes for 1917.
anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century.
an American lawyer involved in the Amistad case, who later became the 17th Governor of Connecticut and United States Senator.
ACLU: American Civil Liberties Union
The ACLU was formed to protect aliens threatened with deportation,
along with U.S. nationals threatened with criminal charges by U.S. Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer for their communist or socialist activities and agendas (see Palmer Raids). It also opposed attacks on the rights of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and other labor unions to meet and organize.
FOUNDED rodger nash baldwin
ideology of United States President Woodrow Wilson and his famous Fourteen Points that he believed would help create world peace if implemented.
Common principles that are often described as "Wilsonian" include:
Advocacy of self-determination by ethnic groupsAdvocacy of the spread of democracyAdvocacy of the spread of CapitalismAnti-isolationism/ Anti-Imperialism, in favor of intervention to help create peace and / or spread freedom
League of Nations
intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, and the precursor to the United Nations.
At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it
had 58 members. The League's primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing war through collective security, disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other goals in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, trafficking in persons and drugs, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.
Boston Police Strike 1919
Boston police rank and file went out on strike on September 9, 1919 in order to achieve recognition for their trade union and improvements in wages and working conditions. They faced an implacable opponent in Police Commissioner Edwin Upton Curtis who denied that police officers had any right to form a union, much less one affiliated with a larger organization like the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
Chicago Race Riots
began in Chicago, Illinois on July 27, 1919 and ended on August 3. During the riot, dozens died and hundreds were injured. It is considered the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer of 1919, so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation. The combination of prolonged arson, looting and murder was the worst race rioting in the history of Illinois.
The first Red Scare began following the Bolshevik Russian Revolution of 1917
and the intensely patriotic years of World War I as anarchist and
left-wing political violence and social agitation aggravated national
social and political tensions. Political scientist, and former member
of the Communist Party, Murray B. Levin
wrote that the "Red Scare" was "a nation-wide anti-radical hysteria
provoked by a mounting fear and anxiety that a Bolshevik revolution in
America was imminent — a revolution that would change Church, home,
marriage, civility, and the American way of Life." Newspapers exacerbated those political fears into xenophobia — because varieties of radical anarchism were perceived as answers to poverty. The advocates often were recent European immigrants
American journalist, poet, and communist activist, best remembered for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. He was married to writer and feminist Louise Bryant. WAR correspondant
attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer.
Though more than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number
of prominent leftist leaders, Palmer's efforts were largely frustrated
by officials at the U.S. Department of Labor
who had responsibility for deportations and who objected to Palmer's
methods and disrespect for the legal process. The Palmer Raids occurred
in the larger context of the Red Scare, the term given to fear of and reaction against political radicals in the U.S. in the years immediately following World War I.
bloody race riots that occurred in the United States
during the summer and early autumn of 1919. In most instances, whites
attacked African Americans in more than two dozen American cities,
though in some cases blacks responded in groups to a single action
against one of their number, notably in Chicago, which, along with Washington, D.C. and Elaine, Arkansas, witnessed the greatest number of fatalities.
Great Flu Pandemic of 1918
unusually severe and deadly influenza pandemic that spread across the world. Historical and epidemiological data are inadequate to identify the geographic origin.
Most victims were healthy young adults, in contrast to most influenza
outbreaks which predominantly affect juvenile, elderly, or weakened
patients. The flu pandemic was implicated in the outbreak of encephalitis lethargica in the 1920s.
Return to Normalcy
American aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and social activist.
used his fame to help promote the rapid development of U.S. commercial
aviation. In March 1932, however, his infant son, Charles, Jr., was kidnapped and murdered in what was soon dubbed the "Crime of the Century"
Spirit of St. Louis
custom-built single engine, single seat monoplane that was flown solo by Charles Lindbergh on May 20–21, 1927, on the first non-stop flight from New York to Paris for which Lindbergh won the $25,000 Orteig Prize.
Lindbergh took off in the Spirit from Roosevelt Airfield, Garden City (Long Island), New York and landed 33 hours, 30 minutes later at Le Bourget Aerodrome in Paris, France.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigm writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century. Fitzgerald is considered a member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s. He finished four novels, This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, Tender is the Night and his most famous, the celebrated classic, The Great Gatsby. A fifth, unfinished novel, The Love of the Last Tycoon
was published posthumously. Fitzgerald also wrote many short stories
that treat themes of youth and promise along with despair and age.
The Great Gatsby
set on Long Island's North Shore and in New York City during the summer of 1922.
The novel takes place following the First World War. American society enjoyed prosperity during the "roaring" 1920s as the economy soared. At the same time, Prohibition, the ban on the sale and manufacture of alcohol as mandated by the Eighteenth Amendment, made millionaires out of bootleggers. After its republishing in 1945 and 1953, it quickly found a wide readership and is today widely regarded as a paragon of the Great American Novel, and a literary classic. The Great Gatsby has become a standard text in high school and university courses on American literature in countries around the world, and is ranked second in the Modern Library's lists of the 100 Best Novels of the 20th Century.
American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright. In 1930, he became the first writer from the United States to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature,
"for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to
create, with wit and humor, new types of characters." His works are
known for their insightful and critical views of American society and capitalist values, as well as for their strong characterizations of modern working women.
satirical novel written by Sinclair Lewis in 1926 and published by Harcourt in March 1927.
The novel tells the story of a young, narcissistic, womanizing college athlete who abandons his early ambition to become a lawyer.
an American author and journalist. His distinctive writing style, characterized by economy and understatement,
influenced 20th-century fiction, as did his life of adventure and
public image. He produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and
the mid-1950s. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1954. Hemingway's fiction was successful because the characters he
presented exhibited authenticity that resonated with his audience. Many
of his works are classics of American literature.
He published seven novels, six short story collections, and two
non-fiction works during his lifetime; a further three novels, four
collections of short stories, and three non-fiction works were
A Farewell to Arms
semi-autobiographical novel written by Ernest Hemingway concerning events during the Italian campaigns during the First World War. The book, which was first published in 1929, is a first-person account of American Frederic Henry, serving as an Lieutenant ("Tenente") in the ambulance corps of the Italian Army. The title is taken from a poem by 16th-century English dramatist George Peele.
was an American-born French dancer, singer, and actress. Nicknamed
the "Bronze Venus", the "Black Pearl", and even the "Créole Goddess" in
Baker was the first African American female to star in a major motion picture and to integrate an American concert hall, and to become a world-famous entertainer. She is also noted for her contributions to the Civil Rights Movement in the United States (she was offered the unofficial leadership of the movement by Coretta Scott King in 1968 following Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, but turned it down), for assisting the French Resistance during World War II and for being the first American-born woman to receive the French military honor, the Croix de guerre.
one of the leading American poets of his time and one of the lights of the Harlem Renaissance.
a Jamaican-American writer and poet. He was a seminal figure in the Harlem Renaissance and wrote three novels: Home to Harlem (1928), a best-seller which won the Harmon Gold Award for Literature, Banjo (1929), and Banana Bottom (1933). McKay also authored a collection of short stories, Gingertown (1932), and two autobiographical books, A Long Way from Home (1937) and Harlem: Negro Metropolis (1940). His book of poetry, Harlem Shadows (1922) was among the first books published during the Harlem Renaissance. His book of collected poems, Selected Poems (1953), was published posthumously.
McKay was attracted to communism in his early life, but he was never a member of the Communist Party.
Zora Neale Hurston
American folklorist, anthropologist, and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance. Of Hurston's four novels and more than 50 published short stories, plays, and essays, she is best known for her 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.
famous night club in Harlem, New York City that operated during Prohibition that included jazz music. While the club featured many of the greatest African American entertainers of the era, such as Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, Adelaide Hall, Count Basie, Bessie Smith, Cab Calloway, The Nicholas Brothers, Lottie Gee, Ella Fitzgerald, Fats Waller, Louis Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespie, Nat King Cole, Billie Holiday and Ethel Waters,
it generally denied admission to blacks. During its heyday, it served
as a chic meeting spot in the heart of Harlem, featuring regular
"Celebrity Nights" on Sundays, at which celebrities such as Jimmy Durante, George Gershwin, Al Jolson, Mae West, Irving Berlin, Eddie Cantor, Moss Hart, New York mayor Jimmy Walker and other luminaries would appear.
movement that took place during the 1920s or the Roaring Twenties from which jazz music
and dance emerged. The movement came about with the introduction of
main stream radio and the end of the war. This era ended in the 1930s
with the beginning of The Great Depression but has lived on in American pop culture for decades. With the introduction of jazz came an entirely new cultural movement in places like the America, France and England. The birth of jazz music is often accredited to African Americans but expanded and modified to become socially acceptable to middle-class white Americans
Jelly Roll Morton
American ragtime and early jazz pianist, bandleader and composer.
Widely recognized as a pivotal figure in early jazz, Morton is perhaps most notable as jazz's first arranger, proving that a genre rooted in improvisation could retain its essential spirit and characteristics when notated.
a composer, pianist, and big band leader. Ellington wrote over 1,000 compositions. In the words of Bob Blumenthal of the Boston Globe "In the century since his birth, there has been no greater composer, American or otherwise, than Edward Kennedy Ellington."
A prominent figure in the history of jazz, Ellington's music stretched into various other genres, including blues, gospel, film scores, popular, and classical
American jazz trumpeter and singer from New Orleans, Louisiana.
Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" cornet and
trumpet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz,
shifting the music's focus from collective improvisation to solo
American composer and pianist. Gershwin's compositions spanned both popular and classical genres, and his most popular melodies are widely known.
Volstead Act 1920
National Prohibition Act, was the enabling legislation for the Eighteenth Amendment which established prohibition in the United States. The Anti-Saloon League's Wayne Wheeler conceived and drafted the bill, which was named for Andrew Volstead, Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, which managed the legislation.
an Italian-American gangster who led a Prohibition-era crime syndicate. Known as the "Capones", the group was dedicated to smuggling and bootlegging liquor, and other illegal activities such as prostitution, in Chicago from the early 1920s to 1931.
Ilegal nightclubs and bars sold liquor; and it was fashionable to go to these.