What is magma made of?
Silicon (Si), and Oxygen (O) which is bond to form the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. Also, Aluminum (AI), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg)
Wet magmas include up to 15% dissolved volatiles such as water, carbon dioxide, Nitrogen (N2), Hydrogen (H2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). These volatiles come out of the Earth at volcanoes.
Igneous Rocks formed by?
Crystallization from a Magma, a mass of melted rock that originate deep in the crust or upper mantle, where temperatures reach the 700oC or more needed to melt rocks.
When a magma erupts from a volcano onto Earth's surface, it cools and solidifies so rapidly that individual crystals have no time for gradual growth. In that case, many tiny crystals form simultaneously, and the result is?
fine grained igneous rocks (extrusive igneous rocks) e.g. BASALT AKA Volcanic rocks.
When magmas cool slowly in the interior, microscopic crystals start to form. As the magma cools below the melting point, some of these crystals have time to grow to several millimeters or larger before the whole mass is crystallized as a?
Coarse-grained igneous rock. (Intrusive Igneous Rocks) e.g. GRANITE AKA Plutonic rocks
Tiny crystals are called?
Large crystals are called?
Below Earth's Surface
- SLOW COOLING
- COARSE GRAINED
ABOVE EARTH'S SURFACE
- RAPID COOLING
- FINE GRAINED
COMMON MINERALS OF IGNEOUS ROCKS: SILICATES
- Silicon is so abundant in the Earth
- Many silicate minerals melt at the temperatures and pressures reached in lower parts of the crust and the mantle.
- LIGHT COLOR MINERALS
- FELDSPAR (K-FELDSPAR AND PLAGIOCLASE FELDSPAR)
- DARK COLOR MINERALS: