Which of the following is the correct angle of insertion for placing a butterfly needle into a vein for intravenous administration of a contrast agent?
D. 15 degrees
A total volume of 125 mL of an iodinated contrast agent is administered intravenously via automatic injector in 50 seconds. The Flow Rate for this injection is:
a 0.75 mL/sec
b. 1.25 mL/sec
c. 1.75 mL/sec
d. 2.5 mL/sec
d. 2.5 mL/sec
125mL divided by 50 sec = 2.5mL/sec
The acronym CTDI is used to describe which of the following?
D. the radiation dose to the patient during a CT scan
While one is obtaining a thorough history from a patient prior to the intravenous injection of an iodinated contrast material, which of the following topics from be included?
1. any prior allergic reaction to contrast media
2. presence of HIV or hepatitis infection
3. history of asthma
B. 1 and 3 only
Which of the following factors may affect a patients calculated Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)?
A. 1, 2, and 3
Which of the following intravenous contrast agent administration methods provides the greatest over-all plasma iodine concentration?
B. Bolus Technique
A patient in shock may exhibit which of the following symptoms?
2. rapid, shallow breathin
B. 1, 2, and 3
The drug SOLU-CORTEF may be classified as which of the following?
Which of the following technical factors has a direct effect on patient dose?
Which of the following is a non-ionice contrast material?
Which of the following terms is used to describe a patient who is having difficulty breathing?
Which of the following devices is used to measure the patient dose from a CT examination?
C. ionization chamber
Which of the following describes the situation in which an assumption is made that an unconscious or otherwise physically unable patient consents to medical treatment?
D. implied consent
Complete Cardiac diatole corresponds in which portion of the cardiac cycle on an electrocardiogram (ECG)?
D. T wave
During CT arthrography, iodinated contrast media is injected directly into the:
A. joint space
Which of the following is considered one of the iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM)?
A common site for the IV administration of iodinated contrast media is the anterior recess of the elbow, otherwise known as:
D. antecubital space
The potentially serious decline in renal function following the IV administration of contrast material is called:
A. contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN)
The quantity of absorbed radiation dose based on the radiosensitivity of a particular tissue type is called:
A. effective dose
Advantages of a saline flush immediately following the IV administration of iodinated contrast material include:
1. reduction in required contrast agent dose
2. reduction in the incidence of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN)
3. reduction of streaking artifact from dense contrast agent in the vasculature
A. 1, 2, and 3
Which of the following medications may be administered to dialte the coronary vasculature prior to a cardiac CT examination?
A. sublingual nitroglycerine
A normal range for diastolic blood pressure in an adult:
A. 60-90 mm Hg
Which of the following is a parental route of medication administration?
Which of the following methods may be employed to reduce the radiation dose to the pediatric patient undergoing CT?
1. reduced mA
2. limit phases of acquistion
3. increase pitch
B. 1, 2, and 3
Radiation exposure and its potentially harmful effects have a relationship that is termed_______in nature?
Which of the following types of isolation techniques protects against infection transmitted through fecal material?
C. enteric precautions
Which of the following is considered one of the ionic radiopaque contrast media (RCM)?
B. iothalamate meglumine
The radiation dose index calculations that takes into account the variations in absorption across the field of view due to beam hardening is termed:
Direct contraindications to the administration of iodinated contrast material include:
1. prior life threatening reaction to iodinated contrast material
2. multiple myeloma
A. 1 only
Which of the following units is used to express the total patient dose from a helically acquired CT examination?
D. mGy-cm (milligrays per centimeter)
Components of a comprehensive CT stroke management protocol typically include:
1. pre-contrast sequence of the brain
2. CTA of the brain brain and carotids
3. CT Perfusion (CTP) of the brain
B. 1, 2, and 3
Simple cysts of the kidney have average attenuation values in the range of:
B. 0 to +20 Hounsfield units
After initiation of rapid bolus administration of an iodinated contrast agent, the arterial phase of hepatic contrast enhancement occurs at approximately:
C. 25-35 seconds
The Abdominal Aorta biforcates at the level of:
On an ECG of the complete cardiac cycle, at which portion of the R-R interval is the heart muscle in diastole?
The accumulation of gas within a degenerating intervertebral disc is called the:
C. vacuum phenomenon
During a spiral or helical CT examination, the scanner acquires data:
1. continuously as the patient travels through the gantry
2. one section at a time
3. in the form of a computer volumetric data set
C. 1 and 3 only
Which of the following CT studies of the head is typically performed without a contrast agent?
B. CT of the brain to r/o subdural hematoma
Which of the following phases of renal contrast enhancement best demonstrates transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder?
CT examinations of the abdomen in the right lateral decubitus are often performed in this position to demonstrate the relationship between the:
B. duodenum and pancreatic head
Which of the following sets of section width and spacing would be most suitable for a general survey CT of the neck?
C. 3mm thick every 3mm
The still viable ischemic cerebral tissue that surrounds the infarct core in a patient with an acute stroke is termed the:
D. ischemic penumbra
Complex fractures of the wrist are most common in which of the following carpal bones?
A complete CT study of the orbits should include:
A. 2.5mm x 2.5mm axial and coronal sections
High-Resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is most commonly used for the evaluation of the:
Which of the following technical maneuvers may be used to remove unwanted pulsations artifacts from cardiac motion during a CTA of the chest for pulmonary embolism?
C. retrospective ECG gating
During a general CT examination of the abdomen, an intravenous contrast agent is indicated and is administered with the aid of an automatic injector. Which of the following ranges of flow rate should be used?
D. 1.0-3.0 mL/sec
Diffuse fatty infiltration of the hepatic parenchyma may be referred to as:
CT images of the chest should be acquired with the patient:
D. at full inspiration
During CT scanning of the head, the gantry should be angled:
A. 15 degrees above the IOML
During the CT examination of the larynx, the patient is often instructed to phonate the letter "E" in order to properly evaluate the:
A. vocal cords
During the CT examination of a female pelvis for a suspected malignancy, ascites may be present in an area posterior to the uterus and ovaries known as:
C. the cul-de-sac
Which of the following pathologic processes may be considered an interstitial disease of the lungs?
An enterovesical fistula is an abnormal communication between the bowel and the:
Prior to a CT colonography, the patient may undergo a process of bowel cleansing termed:
Positioning the patient with the knees flexed over a foam cushoin during a CT examination of the lumbar spine assists in:
1. decreasing the kyphotic curvature of the lumbar spine
2. making the patient more comfortable throughout the exam
3. decreasing the lordoctic curvature of the lumbar spine
B. 2 and 3 only
The imaging plane that is parallel to the foots plantar surface is called the:
D. axial plane
The condition of intermittent cramping pain in the legs due to poor circulation is called:
The HRCT images of the chest are most likely acquired with a section width of:
The pituitary gland is best demonstrated during CT in which of the following imaging planes?
The most common site of organ injury due to blunt abdominal trauma is the:
The adult spinal cord ends at what vertebral level?
Which of the following protocols would provide the best image quality for a 3D disarticulation study of the hips?
B. 1.5mm x 1.0mm sections, bone algorithm
Which of the following terms is used to describe a fibroid tumor of the uterus?
The section thickness that would best demonstrate the greatest detail of the paranasal sinuses is:
Which of the following anatomic organs is located within the peritoneal cavity?
Which of the following may be included as part of a routine preparation for a general contrast-enhanced CT examination of the abdomen and pelvis?
1. instructing the patient to take nothing by mouth (NPO) for 4 hours prior to exam
2. 1200mL of oral contrast agent administered 90 minutes prior to exam
3. having the patient drink 4 liters of poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) 24 hours prior to exam
C. 1 and 2 only
During a complete CT scan of the pelvis, sections should be obtained from the:
B. iliac crests to the pubic symphysis
The recommended scan field of view (SFOV) for a CT examination of the cervical spine is:
C. 50.0 cm
Because of its inherent iodine concentration, the thyroid gland appears________on CT images.
Air trapping within the trachea and bronchial tree may be optimally demonstrated with multiplanar volume reconstruction (MPVRs) of the thorax known as:
a. maximum intensity projection
b. 3D volume rendering
c. shaded-surface displays (SSDs)
d. minimum intensity projections (min-IPs)
d. minimum intensity projections (min-IPs)
Which of the following is NOT a portion of the small bowel?
Which of the following is used as the IV administered radiopharmaceutical during a PET-CT fusion examination?
A. fludeoxyglucose F 18 (FDG)
The specialized CT examination of the bladder in which an iodinated contrast-agent is directly administered under gravity into the bladder via foley catheter is termed:
B. CT cystography
Which of the following best describes the shape of the x-ray beam utilized in MDCT?
Collimation of the CT x-ray beam occurs-
1. at the x-ray tube, regulating slice thickness
2. just beyond the patient, focusing off-axis transmitted radiation
3. before the detectors, limiting the amount of scatter radiation absorbed
D. 1 and 3 only
CT numbers are usually provided in the form of:
B. Hounsfield units
The mathematical technique allowing the reconstruction of the motion-free images from helically acquired CT data is called:
The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a CT scanner is used to describe:
B. spatial resolution
A first generation CT scanner consists of an x-ray tube and two detectors that translate across the patients head while rotating in 1-degree increments for a total of:
C. 180 degrees
Which of the following abbreviations is used to identify a computerized network that stores, retrieves, communicates, and displays digital medical images?
The CT "window" controls the _____ of the CT image as it appears to the viewer.
C. contrast and brightness
Voxels with equal dimensions along the x-, y- and z- axes are referred to as:
Which of the following artifacts is not affected by the CT technologist?
When one is viewing a multiplanar reformation (MPR) image, each voxel represents:
B. the average attenuation occurring within the voxel
Statistial noise appears as _____ on a CT image.
An acquisition is made on a 64-slice MSCT system in which each detector element has a z-axis dimension of 0.625 mm. With a selected beam width of 40 mm and the beam pitch is set at 1.50, how much will the table move with each rotation of the gantry?
A. 60mm------40 mm x 1.5 = 60 mm
The component of the CT computer system responsible for the data processing of image reconstuction is the:
B. array processor
For single-slice CT (SSCT) systems, which of the following statements regarding retrospective image reconstruction is FALSE?
D. the slice thickness and SFOV may be changed
The loss of anatomic information between contiguous sections due to inconsistent patient breathing is called:
Before a CT image can be reconstructed by a computer, the transmission signal produced by the detectors must be converted into numerical information by an:
A. analog-to-digital converter (ADC)
A CT image is formed in part by projecting back all of the attenuation values recorded during data acquisition onto a:
Which of the following archival media is capable of storing the largest number of CT images?
A. optical disk
Areas of a CT image that contain abrupt changes in tissue density are electronically represented by which of the following?
C. high spatial frequencies
Which of the following terms is used to describe a set of rules for solving a mathematical problem?
Which of the following factors does not affect the dimensions of a voxel?
The size of the CT image displayed on a computer monitor can be enlarged by increasing the:
3. image magnification
D. 3 only
The average photon energy of the primary beam of a CT scanner operating at a tube potential of 120 kVp is approximately?
C. 70 keV
MSCT systems typically employ which of the following detector geometries?
C. third generation
The acquisition of a series of CT images at a single anatomic location over a set period is referred to as:
D. cine CT
The rate at which a quantity of x-radiation emitted from a CT tube passes through a unit area over a unit of time is called the:
B. photon flux
An average CT number value for bone is:
C. +1000 HU
A standard CT image reconstructed on a 512 squared matrix has a digital size of appoximately:
B. 0.5 MB
The term used to describe the relationship between the linear attenuation coefficient of an object and the calculated CT numbers is:
Quality control measurements to test the accuracy of the CT scanners calibration should be performed:
The 3D CT technique that includes all of the acquired voxel information in the recontructed model with adjustments to its opacity is termed:
C. volume rendering
Where is the high-frequency generator often located in a modern CT scanner?
B. inside the gantry
The smallest unit of information used in the binary language of computers is the:
The continuous gantry rotation required by helical CT acquisition is made possible by the application of:
The process of applying a mathematical filter to remove blurring from the reconstructed CT image is termed:
Which of the following acquisitions may be characterized as contiguous?
C. 3.75mm sections reconstructed every 3.75mm
Pixels representing tissues with average attenuation coefficients greater than that of water have which of the following types of values?
For a single slice CT system, which of the following statements regarding pre-patient collimation is true?
1. an increase if pre-patient collimation increased patient dose
2. pre-patient collimation is used to focus radiation through the section of interest
3. pre-patient collimation directly controls slice thickness
A. 3 only
Digital CT images are networked and archived in accordance with a standardized computer protocol identified by which of the following abbreviationgs?
The contrast resolution of a CT scanner is NOT related to which of the following?
C. focal spot size
The average photon energy of the CT x-ray beam can be increased by:
B. increasing filtration
Which of the following is a solid-state device used to record the light flashes given off by a scintillation crystal?
Automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) software is used in current MDT systems to control:
D. patient radiation dose
The type of MSCT detector array that contains multiple rows of detector elements, each of the same lengths, is called a(n):
B. uniform matrix array
A CT image is displayed in a window with a level of 0 and a width of 500. Which of the following statements is correct?
B. pixels with values between -250 HU and + 250 HU will be assigned shades of gray
Reformatted CT image planes that lie perpendicular to the original plane of acquisition may be decribed as:
Segmenting the data acquisition process into separate components of smaller rotation angles may improve which of the following components of CT image quality?
D. temporal resolution
Which of the following image artifacts is unique to multislice CT systems?
C. cone beam artifact
Which of the following is considered an analytic form of image reconstruction?
1. iterative technique
2. Fourier reconstruction
3. filtered back projection
A. 2 and 3 only
A 16-slice MSCT system utilizes an adaptive array of 24 detectors, each ranging in size from 0.625 to 1.25 mm. What is the maximum number of sections the system can acquire with each rotation of the gantry?
The measurements of transmitted radiation made by an individual detector is called an:
B. ray sum
The information included during the 3D reconstruction of a CT scan is controlled by the: