micro ch.11

  1. How many bonds are their between the different sets of base pairs?
    There are 3 hydrogen bonds between the guanine and cytosine bases but only two between adenine and thymine.
  2. What types of bonds connect DNA bases?
    Hydrogen bonds
  3. How is a nucleotide formed?
    The phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and base are assembled through the process of dehydration synthesis (removal of water)
  4. What are he 3 components of DNA?
    Phosphate, Sugar (deoxyribose), neucleotides
  5. What are the three main differences between DNA and RNA?
    • DNA- Double stranded, RNA- single stranded
    • DNA- has the nucleotide thymine, RNA- has the nucleotide Uracil instead
    • DNA- Deoxyribose, RNA- Ribose
  6. Induction
    turns on genes that were off. Example is a lac operon; its a set of genes that are regulated, there are many of these in a gene and they are only used when needed.
  7. Repression
    turns off genes. important factor for energy-concious cell, because protein synthesis costs energy, and the synthesis of excess amounts of protein is wasteful.
  8. Transcription
    Process where by RNA is made from DNA.
  9. Translation
    A process going from RNA to a protein.
  10. What will be the effect of a point mutation in which there's a single base change in DNA w/ no change in amino acid?
    No effect on the protein called a “silent” mutation
  11. What will be the effect of a point mutation in whichthere are changes in the DNA sequence that results in a change in the amino acid sequence?
    Causes a change in the protein that can cause significatn alteration of protein function
  12. What will be the effect of a point mutation in which there are changes in the DNA sequence that creates a premature stop codon?
    Produces truncated and non- functioning protein
  13. What will be the effect of a frameshift mutation in which there is deletion or insertion of one or more bases into the DNA sequence?
    Changes the entire sequence of codons and greatly alters the amino acid sequence. Transposition is a form of insertion that can cause a frameshift and change the genetic makeup of the bacterium
  14. Which are more drastic? frame-shift mutations or point mutations?
    frame-shift mutations
  15. Recombination: transformation
    Occurs between cells. Involves “naked” DNA, which can be released from dead cells that have died.
  16. Recombinaino: transduction
    Between cells; similar to transformation but has to come from a virus
  17. Recombination: transposition
    Same cell; 2 genes in close proximity that should be far apart, Genetic elements called transposons move from one place on a bacterial chromosome to another.
  18. Recombination: conjugation
    • Transfer of material between cells. requires direct contact between the donor and recipient cell.
    • Gram positive cells stick to each other. Gram negative cells use pilli to pass DNA.
    • The DNA moves from donor to recipient cell.
  19. Where are genes for antibiotic resistance found?
  20. Where are genes for resistnace to disinfectants and other environmental pressures found?
    Genes for resistance to disinfectants and other environmental pressure are found on dissimulation plasmids.
  21. What are the 2 types of DNA bases?
    • Purines = adenine and guanine
    • Pyridimines = Cytosine and Thymine
Card Set
micro ch.11
bacterial genetics