1. True or False
    Plasma membrane is selectively permeable--allows only certain kinds of molecules to pass.
  2. What type of transport involves specfice protiens?
    Carrier-mediated transport involves specific protein transporters
  3. What type of transport occurs by diffusion.
    Non-carrier mediated transport occurs by diffusion
  4. Describe "Passive Process".
    Passive processes - substances move across cell membranes without the input of any energy; use the kinetic energy of individual molecules or ions
  5. Describe "Active Process".
    Active processes - a cell uses energy, primarily from the breakdown of ATP, to move a substance across the membrane, i.e., against a concentration gradient
  6. What factors influence diffusion?
    • Steepness of concentration gradient
    • Temperature
    • Mass of diffusing substance
    • Surface area
    • Diffusion distance
  7. Image Upload 1
    Simple diffusion.
  8. Image Upload 2
    This is Channel Mediated Diffusion.
  9. Image Upload 3
    This is Carrier Mediated Diffusion
  10. True or False
    Non-polar compounds readily diffuse thru cell membrane
  11. Cell membranes are impermeable what?
    Charged and most polar compounds.
  12. What makes it possible for charged molecules to move across the membrane.
    Charged molecules must have an ion channel or transporter to move across membrane
  13. What is Osmosis?
    Net movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high concentration of water (lower concentration of solutes) to one of lower concentration of water.
  14. How does water pass through the plasma membrane?
    • Through lipid bilayer by simple diffusionthrough Aquaporins, integral membrane proteins.
    • H2O diffuses down its concentration gradient until its concentration is equal on both sides of a membrane. Some cells have water channels (aquaporins) to facilitate osmosis
  15. What is Osmotic Pressure?
    • Is the force that would have to be exerted to stop osmosis
    • Indicates how strongly H2O wants to diffuse
    • Is proportional to solute concentration
  16. What is OSM?
    Osmolality (Osm) is total molality of a solution. Or the total concentration of the solute present in the solvent.
  17. The effect of a solution on osmotic movement of H2O is what?
  18. A solution that has the SAME osmotic pressure is referred to as what?
    Isotonic solutions have the same osmotic pressure
  19. Hypertonic solutions. . .
    Have higher osmotic pressure and are osmotically active
  20. True or False?
    Hypotonic solutions have higher osmotic pressure and are osmotically active.
    • False.
    • Hypotonic solutions have LOWER osmotic pressureand are osmotically active
  21. Image Upload 4
    This solution is Isotonic. Thus there is no change in the blood cell. It is normal.
  22. Image Upload 5
    This solution is hypertonic.The Cell shirnks and undergoes Creantation.
  23. Image Upload 6
    • This Solution is Hypotonic and the cell swells undergoing
    • Hemyolsis.
  24. Blood osmolality is maintained in a narrow range around what level?
    Blood osmolality is maintained in a narrow range around 300mOsm.
  25. If dehydration occurs what happens?
    If dehydration occurs, osmoreceptors in hypothalamus stimulate:ADH release & Thirst. Which causes kidney to conserve H2O and Drinking
  26. Molecules too large and polar to diffuse are transported across membrane by protein carriers in a process called what?
    Carrier-Mediated Transport
  27. What is Facilitated Diffusion?
    Is passive transport down concentration gradient by carrier proteins.
  28. Image Upload 7
    • This is the K+ Pump (Potassium pump)
    • Channel-mediated Facilitated Diffusion of Potassium ions through a Gated K + Channel.
  29. Protein carriers exhibit: Specificity for single molecule Competition among substrates for transport. Saturation when all carriers are occupied. This is called Tm. What type of transport is this?
    Carrier-Mediated Transport
  30. Solutes are transported across plasma membranes with the use of energy, from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher Concentration Sodium-potassium pump. By what means is this accomplished?
    Active Transport
  31. Na+/K+ Pump what's signifigant about this?
    • Uses ATP to move 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in.
    • Against their gradients
  32. Define Secondary Active Transport.
    Requires ATP to first move Na+ uphill to create a gradient. Secondary active transport then uses energy from “downhill” movement of Na+ to drive “uphill” transport of another molecule.
  33. Cotransport (symport) is what?
    Secondary transport in same direction as Na+
  34. What is it called when molecule move in opposite direction to Na+?
    Countertransport (antiport)

  35. Define a vesicle.
    A small spherical sac formed by budding off from a membrane.
  36. Endocytosis is what?
    Materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane.
  37. What are the 3 types of Endocytosis?
    • Receptor-mediated endocytosis Phagocytosis
    • Bulk-phase endocytosis (pinocytosis)
  38. Vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents into the extracellular fluid is defined as what?
  39. Transcytosis is what?
    A combination of endocytosis and exocytosis
  40. Bulk Transport does what?
    • Moves large molecules and particles across plasma membrane.
    • Occurs by endocytosis and exocytosis
  41. Phagocytosis is also refered to as what?
    Cell eating.
  42. Transcellular transport does what?
    Moves material from 1 side to other of epithelial cells
  43. What is the term for "moves material through tiny spaces between epithelial cells"?
    Paracellular transport
  44. True or False?
    Transport between cells is limited by junctional complexes that connect adjacent epithelial cells.
  45. What is a Tissue?
    • Group of similar cells
    • Common embryonic origin
    • Common function
    • And they work together to carry out specialized activities
  46. The study of tissue is what?
  47. What does a Pathologist do?
    Looks for tissue changes that may suggest a disease state.
  48. What is Epithelial Tissue?
    • Covers surfaces, cells contact with other cells
    • Lines hollow organs, cavities and ducts
    • Forms glands when cells migrate beneath the surface
  49. Generally material (matrix) is found between cells
    Protects, Supports and Binds structures together
    Stores energy as fat
    Provides immunity
    Connective Tissue
  50. What is Muscle Tissue?
    • Cells shorten in length generating the physical force needed to put body structures in motion
    • Generates body heat
  51. Nerve Tissue
    • Cells that conduct electrical signals
    • Monitors/detects changes inside and outside the body
    • Coordinates body activities through the generation of nerve impulses
  52. What are the Primary germ layers within the embryo?
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Ectoderm
  53. Epithelial Tissue develops from where?
    Epithelial Tissue develops from all 3 germ layers
  54. Connective & Muscle Tissue develops where?
    Connective & Muscle Tissue develops from mesoderm.
  55. Nerve Tissue develops from where?
  56. What is a biopsy and what is the purpose?
    • Removal of living tissue for microscopic examination
    • Useful for diagnosis, especially cancer
    • Tissue is preserved, sectioned and stained in preparation for microscopic viewing
  57. Define the following junction.
    Image Upload 8
    Adherens Junctions
  58. What's unique about Adherens Junctions?
    • Holds epithelial cells together at specific points
    • Structural components
    • A plaque contains a dense layer of protein within the cell membrane
    • Microfilaments extend into and through the cytoplasm (belt)
    • Integral membrane proteins (cadherins) connect the membranes of cells
    • Common in tissues subjected to friction and stretching
    • Outer layer of skin, cardiac muscle and GI tract
  59. Define the following junction.
    Image Upload 9
  60. What is unique about Desmosomes?
    • Resists cellular separation and cell disruption
    • Similar structure to adherens junction except intracellular intermediate filaments cross cytoplasm of cell to desmosomes on the other side of the cell
    • Prevent epidermal cells from separating under tension and cardiac muscles cells from pulling apart during contraction
  61. Define the following junction.
    Image Upload 10
    Gap junction.
  62. What is unique about a Gap junction?
    • Connect neighboring cells via tiny fluid-filled tunnels called connexons
    • Contain membrane proteins called connexins
    • Plasma membranes of gap junctions are separated by a very narrow intercellular gap (space)
    • Communication of cells within a tissue
    • Ions, nutrients, waste, chemical and electrical signals travel through the connexons from one cell to another
  63. Define the follwing junction.
    Image Upload 11
  64. What is unique to Hemidesmosomes?
    • Resemble half of a desmosome
    • Do not link adjacent cells but anchor cells to the basement membrane (extracellular material)
    • Contains transmembrane glycoprotein integrin
    • Integrins attach to intermediate filaments and the protein laminin present in the basement membrane
  65. Define the following junction.
    Image Upload 12
    Tight junction.
  66. What is unique about a Tight junction?
    • Web-like strands of transmembrane proteins Fuse cells together
    • Seal off passageways between adjacent cells
    • Common in epithelial tissues of the stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder
    • Help to retard the passage of substances between cells and leaking into the blood or surrounding tissues
  67. Muscle Cells consist of what?
    • Consists of elongated cells called muscle fibers or myocytes
    • Cells that shorten
  68. What cells provide us with motion, posture and heat
    Muscle Cells.
  69. Are all muscle functions voulntary?
    No. While many are, some such as posture are not.
  70. What are the 3 main types of Muscle Cells?
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth muscular tissue (SMC)
  71. Identify the following tissue.
    Image Upload 13
    Skeletal Muscluar.
  72. Identify the following tissue.
    Image Upload 14
    Cardiac Muscle Tissue.
  73. Identify the follwing tissue.
    Image Upload 15
    Smooth Muscle tissue.
Card Set
AP Exam 2 Part 1