Histo Lecture 11

  1. What are some metaolic wastes that the kidney excretes?
    Urea, creatinine, uric acid, bilirubin, hormone metabolites
  2. What are the 3 MAJOR electrolytes the kidney tries to maintain at constant levels in the body?
    • H20
    • Na+
    • PO4-
  3. How does the kidney regulate arterial pressure?
    via H2O and Na+
  4. What are the functions of the kidney?
    • Excrete metabolic waste
    • Matches output with intake for fluid and electrolytes
    • Regulates arterial pressure
    • Regulates Acid-base balance
    • Erythrocyte production
    • Regulation of Vitamin D production
    • Gluconeogenesis
  5. What does the kidney excrete to signal bone marrow to make erythrocytes?
  6. What are the major landmarks of the kidney?
    • Hilum
    • Cortex
    • Medulla
    • Renal pyramid
    • Renal papilla
    • Renal pelvis
  7. What is the order of arteriole blood supply to the kidney?
    • Renal artery
    • Interlobar arteries
    • arcuate arteries
    • interlobular arteries
    • afferent arterioles
    • glomerulus
  8. What is the functional unit of the kidney?
  9. What is the golmerulus?
    Tuft of capillaries through which blood is filtered
  10. What is Bowman's capsule?
    • Collecting area for initial filtrate
    • Distributes fluid to the proximal tubule
  11. What is the tubule system?
    tubular network where initial filtrate is conerted into urine
  12. What are the major parts of the nephron?
    • Glomerulus
    • Bowman's capsule
    • Tubule system
    • -Proximal tubule
    • -Loop of Henle
    • -Distal tubule
    • Cortical collecting duct
    • Medullary collecting duct
  13. What covers the glomerulus?
    • Podocytes
    • "foot processes" that stretch out over the capillaries
  14. What are the 3 main steps in glomeruluar filtration?
    • Reabsorption
    • Secretion
    • Excretion
  15. What is filtered and secreted into the urine?
    Foreign substances
  16. What is filtered and then higly reabsorbed?
    • Na+
    • Cl-
    • HCO3
  17. What is reabsorbed and usually not secreted?
  18. What is GFR?
    Glomerular filtration rate
  19. How is GFR measured?
    Measured by urine analysis of creatinine clearance from the blood
  20. What is not filtered in urine formation?
    • Large proteins
    • Negatively charged proteins (albumin, Hb)
    • fatty acids
  21. What are the three main things that affect filtration rate?
    • CHP
    • capsular HP
    • capillary OP
  22. Why do people with hypertension have kidney problems?
    High blood pressure causes chronic filtration of blood which can "burnout" the glomerulus
  23. How does the sympathetic system control GFR?
    Alters afferent and efferent arterioler resistance
  24. What are some vasoconstrictors that decrease GFR?
    • epi/norepinephrine
    • angiotensin II
    • endothelin
  25. What are some vasodilators that increase GFR?
    • Nitric oxide
    • bradykinin
    • Prostaglandins
  26. What is tubuloglomerular feedback?
    Sodium concentration at the maula densa controls arteriolar resistance
  27. What is myogenic auto-regulation?
    • Reflexive smooth muscle contraction of arterioles (occurs with increased blood pressure/blood flow)
    • Increases arteriolar resistance and maintains constant GFR
  28. What does the macula densa "sense"?
    • Low NaCl (means increased Na reabsorption)
    • High NaCl (means decreased Na reabsorption)
  29. What does the macula densa signal to make changes?
    Juxtaglomerular cells to incrase or decrease afferent arteriolar resistance
  30. When there is low NaCl, what happens?
    • macula densa signals to decrease afferent arteriole resistance
    • kidney releases renin to increase efferent efferent arteriole resistance
Card Set
Histo Lecture 11
Renal System