Health & Illness

  1. Define health.
    A dynamic state of being in which one's developmental and behavioral potential is realized to the fullest extent possible
  2. Define disease.
    A condition of abnormal vital function involving any structure, part, or system of an organism. (mental or physical disorder)
  3. Define illness.
    An abnormal process in which aspects of the social, physical, emotional, or intellectual condition and function of a person are diminished or impaired compared with that person's previous condition. (not functioning at your peak---deminished)
  4. Define well-being.
    Achievement of a good and satisfactory existence as defined by the individual. (ideal feeling at the top of your potential)
  5. Define wellness.
    A dynamic state of health in which an individual progresses toward a higher level of functioning, achieving an optimum balance between internal and external environments. (self-responsibility, daily decision-making about health involving whole being)
  6. Define high level wellness.
    A concept of optimal health that emphasizes the integration of body, mind, and environment to maximize the function of an individual. (an ideal to strive for)
  7. Explain the Health Belief Model.
    A conceptual framework that describes a person's health behavior as an expression of health beliefs. The model was designed to predict a person's health behavior, including the use of health services, and to justify intervention to alter maladaptive health behavior. Components of the model include the person's own perception of susceptibility to a disease or condition, the perceived likelihood of contracting that disease or condition, the perceived severity of the consequences of contracting the condition or the disease, the perceived benefits of care and barriers to preventive behavior, and the internal or external stimuli that result in appropriate health behavior by the person
  8. Explain the Health Promotion Model.
    Health promotion is directed at increasing a client's level of well-being. The health promotion model describes the multidimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health.The model focuses on the following three areas: (1) individual characteristics and experiences, (2) behavior-specific knowledge and affect, and (3) behavioral outcomes. The HPM notes that each person has unique personal characteristics and experiences that affect subsequent actions. The set of variables for behavioral-specific knowledge and affect have important motivational significance. These variables can be modified through nursing actions. Health-promoting behavior is the desired behavioral outcome and is the end point in the HPM. Health-promoting behaviors should result in improved health, enhanced functional ability, and better quality of life at all stages of development.
  9. Explain the Basic Human Needs Model.
    The elements required for survival and normal mental and physical health, such as food, water, shelter, protection from environmental threats, and love. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a model that nurses use to understand the interrelationships of basic human needs. According to this model, certain human needs are more basic than others; that is, some needs must be met before other needs (e.g., fulfilling the physiological needs before the needs of love and belonging). Self-actualization is the highest expression of one's individual potential and allows for continual discovery of self. Maslow's model takes into account individual experiences, always unique to the individual.
  10. Explain Holistic Health Models.
    A concept that concern for health requires a perception of the individual as an integrated system rather than one or more separate parts including physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional.
  11. Define Health promotion.
    Encourages people to be responsible for taking control of their health. Incorporates concepts of wholeness, wellness, well-being, and lifestayle changes. Includes programs that modify environment and individual behaviors.
  12. Define primary prevention.
    • Interventions aimed at decreasing probability of specific illness or dysfunction.
    • Ex: immunizations, education, healthy eating habits, screening and prenatal vits.
  13. Define secondary preventions.
    • Interventions that focus on early diagnosis and prompt tx of illness.
    • Ex: colonoscopy, mammogram, ultrsound, diabetes education, skin ulcers.
  14. Define tertiary prevention.
    • Interventions focused on minimizing the effects of permanent, irreversible disease or disability; minimizing complications.
    • Ex: osteoporosis, renal disease, heart disease, asthma, stroke, parkinson's.
  15. Explain acute vs chronic.
    • Acute <6 months, temporary, treatable, sudden onset.
    • Chronic >6 months, has permanent changes in the body. The goal of care is reduce occurences of symptoms or improve tolerance of symptoms.
  16. Explain internal variables.
    • Internal variables include a person's developmental stage, intellectual background, perception of functioning, and emotional and spiritual factors. Involves their developmental stage, intellectual background, perception of functioning, emotional factors, and spiritual factors.
    • Ex: Are my symptoms disrupting my routines?, Are my symptoms life-threatening?, Do I believe I'm in control of my health?.
  17. Explain external variables.
    • External variables influencing a person's health beliefs and practices include family practices, socioeconomic factors, and cultural background. Involves their family practices, socioeconomic factors, and cultural background.
    • Ex: Are my symptoms visible to others?, Does my peer group support me in seeking help?, Does my culture recognize my symptoms as an illness?.
  18. Explain health-seeking behaviors.
    Personal actions to promote optimal wellness, recovery, and rehabilitation. (someone who is very healthy that wants to make a change into a higher level of health)
  19. Explain Ineffective health maintenance.
    The defining characteristics include a demonstrated lack of knowledge regarding basic health practices or the inability to take responsibility for meeting those needs, the inability to adapt to internal or external environmental change, a lack of financial or other resources or support systems, a history of a lack of health-seeking behavior, or an increased interest in improving health behavior. Related factors include a lack of or significant alteration in communication skills, lack of ability to make deliberate and thoughtful judgments, perceptual or cognitive impairment, ineffective individual coping, dysfunctional grieving, unachieved developmental tasks, ineffective family coping, disabling spiritual distress, and lack of material resources. (not exhibiting healthy behaviors that you would expect to see that age to be doing)
  20. Explain Ineffective therapeutic regimen.
    The major defining characteristics are choices of daily living ineffective for meeting the goals of a treatment or prevention program. Minor defining characteristics are acceleration of illness symptoms, verbalized desire to manage the treatment and prevention of sequelae, verbalized difficulty with regulation or integration of one or more prescribed regimens for treatment of illness and its effects or prevention of complications, verbalization that intimates that the patient would not attempt to include treatment regimens in daily routines, and verbalization that intimates that the patient would not attempt to reduce risk factors for progression of illness and sequelae. Related factors include complexity of the health care system, complexity of the therapeutic regimen, decisional conflicts, economic difficulties, excessive demands made on the individual or family, family conflict, family patterns of health care, inadequate number and types of cues to action, knowledge deficits, mistrust of regimen and/or health care personnel, perceived seriousness, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, powerlessness, and social support deficits.
  21. Explain noncompliance.
    The critical defining characteristic, which must be present for the diagnosis to be made, is an observation of the client's failure to adhere to a recommendation or a statement by the client or knowledgeable other person that the recommendations are not being followed. Other defining characteristics include objective tests that show noncompliance, evidence of development of complications, evidence of exacerbation of symptoms, failure to keep appointments, failure to progress, and inability to set or attain mutual goals. The related factors include the patient's value system (health beliefs, cultural influences, and spiritual values) and patient and provider relationships.
  22. What are the 5 stages of change?
    Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance
  23. Define precontemplation.
    not willing to make a change
  24. Define contemplation.
    thinking about change
  25. Define preparation.
    small changes at a time
  26. Define action.
    saying now i'm going to do something about it
  27. Define maintenance.
    now that i've stopped--can i stop completely without relapse
  28. Using Maslow's model, which statement characterizes the highest level of need?

    B. "I'm very proud of receiving the Employee of the Month award at my hospital."
  29. Which is an example of the emotional component of wellness?

    B. A client expresses frustration with his diabetic regimen.
  30. A 55 year old teacher decides to have a colonoscopy. Which factor was likely a cue to action?

    D. The recent death of a friend from colon cancer.
  31. A 24 year old diabetic client comes to the clinic with a 200 blood sugar. He says he wants to control his diabetes, but finds it hard to fit appropriate eating, FSBS, and insulin into his very active lifestyle.
    Best nursing diagnosis?

    B. Ineffective therapeutic regimen management
  32. Based on the fact that health is a perception, which person is likely to consider himself/herself healthy?

    B. Honors student who uses a wheelchair and volunteers for a suicide hotline.
  33. Client: "I was born to be fat. I can lose weight fine, but I don't have the willpower to kepp it off." Using the health promotional model, what will the nurse focus on to help the client?

    C. Perceived self-efficacy
  34. Abby Smith is a parish nurse for her Catholic church. The first Sunday of every month she has a free blood pressure screening. She is providing what level of prevention?

    D. Primary prevention
  35. Mr. Jones is 72 years old and was diagnosed with COPD 5 years ago. For the last 2 years, he has been participating in a pulmonary rehabilitation exercise class offered by the local hospital at a fitness facility. This is what level of prevention?

    B. Tertiary prevention
  36. Karen works in a special care unit in Denver, CO for children with severe immunology problems. Today she is caring for a 3 year old boy from Greece. The boy's father is with him, while his mother and sister are back in Greece. Karin is having difficulty communicating with the father. What should she do?

    A. Search for help with interpretation and understanding of the cultural differences by contracting someone from the Greek community in Denever.
Card Set
Health & Illness
Exam #2