Speech Midterm

  1. The process of creating or sharing meaning in informal conversation, group interaction, or public speaking.
  2. Individuals who assume the roles of senders & receivers during an interaction.
  3. Verbal utterances, visual images, & nonverbal behaviors to which meaning is attributed during communication.
  4. Thoughts in our minds & interpretations of other messages.
  5. Words, sounds, & actions that are generally understood to represent ideas & feelings.
  6. The process of putting our thoughts & feelings into words & nonverbal cues.
  7. The process of enterpreting another's message.
  8. The setting in which communication occurs, including what precedes & follows what is said.
  9. A communication encounter's location, environmental conditions (temp, lighting, noise level), distance between communicators, seating arrangements, & time of day.
    Physical Context
  10. The nature of the relationship that exists between the participants.
    Social context
  11. The background provided by previous communication episodes between the participants that influence understandings in the current encounter.
    Historical Context
  12. The mood & feelings each person brings to a conversation.
    Psychological Context
  13. The values, attitudes, beliefs, orientations, & underlying assumptions prevalent among people in a society.
    Cultural Context
  14. Both the route traveled by the message & the means of transportation.
  15. Any stimulus that interferes with the process of sharing meaning.
    Interference (noise)
  16. Sights, sounds, & other stimuli in the environment that draw people's attention away from intended meaning.
    Physical Interference
  17. Internal distractions based on thoughts, feelings, or emotionalreactions to symbols.
    Psychological Interference
  18. Thoughts & feelings that compete for attention & interfere with the communication process.
    Internal Noise
  19. Distractions aroused by certain symbols that take our attention away from the main message.
    Semantic Noise
  20. Reactions & responses to messages.
  21. The different communication environments within which people interact, characterized by the # of participants & the extent to which the interaction is formal or informal, also called communication contexts.
    Communication Setting
  22. The interactions that occur in a person's mind when he or she is talking with himself or herself.
    Intrapersonal Communication
  23. Informal interactions between 2 people who have an identifiable relationship with each other.
    Interpersonal Communication
  24. 2 - 20 people who participants come together for specific purpose of solving a problem or arriving at a decision.
    Small Group Communication
  25. One participant, the speaker, delivers a prepared message to a group or audience who has assembled to hear the speaker.
    Public Communication
  26. Messages spoken without much conscious thought.
    Spontaneous Expressions
  27. Phrasings learned from past encounters that we judge to be appropriate to the present situation.
    Scripted Messages
  28. Messages put together w/careful thought when we recognize that our known scripts are inadequate for the situation.
    Constructed Messages
  29. The degree of liking or attractiveness in a relationship.
  30. The degree to which one participant is perceived to be more dominant or powerful.
  31. Systems of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people.
  32. A set of moral principles that may be held by a society, a group, or an individual.
  33. A choice involving 2 unsatisfactory alternatives.
    Ethical Dilemma
  34. The impression that communicative behavior is both appropriate & effective in a given situation.
    Communication Competence
  35. A perception of a speaker's knowledge, trustworthiness, & warmth.
  36. Communicating without appearing to be anxious or nervous.
    Social Ease
  37. Fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with others.
    Communication Apprehension
  38. A body of symbols (most commonly words) & the systems for their use in messages that are common to the people of the same speech community.
  39. A group of people who speak the same language (also called a language community)
    Speech Community
  40. Symbols used by a speech community to represent objects, ideas, & feelings.
  41. A theory claiming that language influences perception.
    Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
  42. The direct, explicit meaning a speech community formally gives a word.
  43. The feelings or evaluations we associate with a word.
  44. The position of a word in a sentence & the other words around it.
    Syntactic Context
  45. Cultures in which messages are direct, specific, & detailed.
    Low-Context Cultures
  46. Cultures in which messages are indirect, general, & ambiguous.
    High-Context Cultures
  47. Use words of empathy & support, emphasize concrete & personal language, & show politeness & tentativeness in speaking.
    Feminine Styles of Language
  48. Use words of status & problem solving, emphasize abstract & general language, & show assertiveness & control in speaking.
    Masculine Styles of Language
  49. Words that clarify meaning by narrowing what is understood from a general category to a particular item or group within that category.
    Specific Words
  50. Words that appeal to the senses & help us see, hear, smell, taste, or touch.
    Concrete Words
  51. Words that narrow a larger category to a smaller group within that category.
    Precise Words
  52. Specifying the time or time period that a fact was true or known to be true.
    Dating Information
  53. The mental & verbal practice of acknowledging the presence of individual differences when voicing generalizations.
    Indexing Generalizations
  54. Wording that is full of life, vigorous, bright, & intense.
    Vivid Wording
  55. A direct comparison of dissimilar things
  56. A comparison that establishes a figurative identity between objects being compared.
  57. The importance given to certain words or ideas.
  58. Technical terms whose meanings are understood only by select groups
  59. Language choices that demonstrate respect for listener(s).
    Linguistic Sensitivity
  60. Informal vocab used by particular groups in society.
  61. Using words that may apply only to one sex, race, or other group as though they represent everyone.
    Generic Language
  62. Bodily actions & vocal qualities that typically accompany a verbal message.
    Nonverbal Communication Behaviors
  63. Typed symbols that convey emotional aspects of an online message.
  64. The interpretation of how body motions communicate.
  65. Movements of our hands, arms, & fingers that we use to describe or to emphasize.
  66. Gestures that augment a verbal message.
  67. Gestures can substitute for words.
  68. Gestures that respond to a physical need.
  69. How & how much we look at people with whom we are communicating.
    Eye Contact or Gaze
  70. How & how much we look at others when communicating.
  71. The arrangement of facial muscles to communicate emotional states or reactions to messages.
    Facial Expressions
  72. The position & movement of the body.
  73. Posture in relation to another person.
    Body Orientation
  74. Movement that helps clarify meaning (motivated) or movement that distracts listeners from the point being made (unmotivated).
    Body Movement
  75. What & how touch communicates.
  76. The interpretation of the message based on the paralinguistic features.
  77. The voiced but not verbal part of a spoken message.
  78. The highness or lowness of vocal tone.
  79. The loudness or softness of tone.
  80. The speed at which a person speaks.
  81. The sound of a person's voice that distinguishes it from others.
  82. The variety, melody, or inflection in one's voice.
  83. Extraneous sounds or words that interrupt fluent speech.
    Vocalized Pauses
  84. The interpretation of a person's use of space & distance.
  85. The distance you try to maintain when you interact with other people.
    Personal Space
  86. The physical environment over which you exert control.
    Physical Space
  87. Objects & possessions we use to decorate the physical space we control.
  88. The interpretation of a person's use of time.
  89. A time orientation that emphasizes doing one thing at a time.
    Monochromic Time Orientation
  90. A time orientation that emphasizes doing multiple things at once.
    Polychronic Time Orientation
  91. Round & heavy body type.
  92. Muscular & athletic body type
  93. Lean & little muscle development.
  94. The process of receiving, constructing meaning from, & responding to spoken &/or nonverbal messages.
  95. Listening for enjoyment
    Appreciative Listening
  96. Listening to understand the meaning of a message.
    Discriminative Listening
  97. Listening to learn or remember
    Comprehensive Listening
  98. Listening to understand the speakers feelings about the message.
    Empathic Listening
  99. Listening to eval the truthfulness or honesty of a message.
    Critical Listening
  100. The process of focusing on what a speaker is saying regardless of the potential distractions of other competing stimuli.
  101. Decoding a message accurately to reflect the meaning intended by the speaker.
  102. Intellectually identifying with or vicariously experiencing the feelings or attitudes of another.
  103. Experiencing an emotional response parallel to, & as a result observing, another person's actual or anticipated display of emotions.
    Empathic Responsiveness
  104. Feeling concern , compassion, or sorrow for another because of the other's situation or plight.
    Sympathetic Responsiveness
  105. Any artificial technique used as a memory aid.
    Mnemonic Device
  106. Critically analyzing what you have heard to determine its truthfulness.
  107. Statements made by the speaker that are based on facts or observations.
  108. Comforting statements that have a goal to reassure, bolster, encourage, soothe, console, or cheer up.
    Supportive Messages
  109. A broad area of knowledge
  110. Some specific aspect of a subject
  111. An uncritical , nonevaluative process of generating associated ideas.
  112. A visual means of exploring connections between a subject & related ideas.
    Concept Mapping
  113. The study of the intended audience for your speech
    Audience Analysis
  114. The process of tailoring your info to the needs, interests, & expectations of your speech audience.
    Audience Adaptation
  115. Brief, often amusing stories
  116. A 1 or 2 sentence statement that provides a sense of closure by driving home the importance of your speech in a memorable way.
  117. The process of customizing your speech material to your specific audience.
    Audience Adaptation
  118. The level of confidence that an audience places in the truthfulness of what a speaker says.
  119. A type of communication anxiety (or nervousness), is the level of fear you experience when anticipating or actually speaking to an audience.
    Public Speaking Apprehension
  120. Seeing public speaking as a situation in which a speaker must impress an audience with knowledge & delivery, & seeing an audience members as hypercritical judges.
    Performance Orientation
  121. Seeing a speech situation as an opportunity to talk with a number of people about a topic that is important to the speaker & to them.
    Communication Orientation
  122. A method to reduce apprehension by gradually visualizing increasingly more frightening speaking events.
    Systemic Desensitization
  123. A method to systematically rebuild thoughts about public speaking by replacing anxiety-arousing negative self talk with anxiety-reducing positive self-talk.
    Cognitive Restructuring
  124. Lively & dynamic
  125. Understandable
  126. Using the tongue, palate, teeth, jaw movement, & lips to shape vocalized sounds that combine to produce a word.
  127. The form & accent of various syllables of a word.
  128. The articulation, inflection, tone, & speech habits typical of native speakers of a language.
  129. A speech that is delivered with only minutes or seconds notice to prepare & usually no notes.
    Impromptu Speech
  130. Speech that is researched & planned ahead of time, will vary from presentation to presentation.
    Extemporaneous Speech
  131. An informative presentation that provides carefully researched , in-depth knowledge about a complex topic.
    Expository Speech
  132. A message sent from one individual to another, often known as the grapevine.
    Serial Communication
  133. Talking against someone, not merely about them.
  134. 3 Distortions that are properties of Serial Communication
    Leveling, Sharpening, Assimilation
  135. SIMPLIFYING IT... Reduction & Omission of details. The original message is reduced to a simplified form in order to make it easier for the sender to transmit to the next person.
  136. EMBELLISHING... Details become crystalized & heightened. The details which the sender finds most relevant, exciting, & interesting are highlighting, emphasized, & embellished.
  137. Message reworked in terms of our own attitudes, prejudices, needs, & values. Evaluation of the message/sender changes the message.
  138. WIIFM
    What's in it for me?
  139. Always the 1st thing out of your mouth
    Attention Grabber
  140. Tells the purpose
  141. Makes it believable
  142. Preview main points. Tells how you are going to do it.
Card Set
Speech Midterm
Ch. 1, 3, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 Vocab