Integumentary System

  1. The stratum spinosum produces spine-like substances that literally connect one layer of cell to another. These spine-like substances are called_________.
  2. The epidermis and dermis are colletively called the ________ membrane.
  3. New skin cells are derived from which layer of the skin
    stratum basal or basal layer
  4. Which skin layer consists of cells that produce a pigment to create a darker skin color?
    stratum basale or basal layer
  5. Which skin layer produces sweat in the axillary region?
    reticular layer
  6. What is the name of the muscle that causes hair to stand erect?
    arrector pili
  7. What is the name of the area on the fingernail that is light in color and is ocated at the root of hte nail?
  8. Which gland is involved in acne production?
  9. Which gland produces natural body odor?
  10. What are the four main components of the integumentary system?
    • skin
    • hair
    • nails
    • glands
  11. Which layer of hte epidermis consists of cells that are undergoing interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis?
    stratum basale or basal layer
  12. Which glands produce the oily substance called sebum?
    sebaceous glands
  13. Arrector pili muscles are ________ muscle.
  14. Arrector pili muscles are under ___________ control.
  15. The most superficial layer of the epidermis is the ________.
    stratum corneum or horney layer
  16. Which layer of the dermis consists of the sebaceous glands?
    papillary layer of the dermis
  17. What layer of tissue is located between ther dermis and muscle?
  18. What is the most superficial layer of skin
    stratum corneum or horney layer
  19. What layer of the skin are melanocytes found in
    stratum basale or basal layer
  20. dandruff is due to rather large sheets of epidermal cells flaking off the body. What is the name of this layer?
    stratum corneum or horney layer
  21. Which layer of skin consists of the accessory sx such as glands?
    papillary and reticular layers
  22. A blocked sebaceous gland could result in what type of skin condition?
  23. Which layer of the dermis consists of the sebaceous glands?
    reticular layer
  24. Serous membranes have _______ and ________ layers.
    • parietal
    • visceral
  25. _____________ secrete a lubricating fluid.
    Serous membrane
  26. Sweat consists of
    • water
    • sodium chloride
    • ammonia
  27. Hair consists of
    • shaft
    • cortex
    • matrix
    • cuticle
  28. What is associated with the production of perspiration?
    • sweat glands
    • sweat pores
    • eccrine gland
    • apocrine gland
  29. What structure provides protection from ultraviolet radiation?
  30. What provides insulation and energy storage?
  31. What layer provides waterproofing and preventing water loss?
    Stratum corneum or horney layer
  32. What structure provides temperature regulation?
    dermal blood supply
  33. Excretion of water, urea, and salts happens were
    eccrine sweat glands
  34. What produces the patterns for fingerprints?
    papillary layer of the dermis
  35. The integumentary system is composed of the sking and a number of derivatives such as hair, nails, and __________.
  36. The largest organ of the body is the
  37. The skins accounts for approximately _______ of the total body weight.
  38. The skin protects the body from fluid loss or gain and serves as a barrier to
  39. Water soluble substances may not enter the body becasue the skin contains a waterproof protein known as
  40. At the foundation of the epidermis, a barrier of protection is provided by the
    basement membrane
  41. The pigment formed in the skin is called
  42. Skin pigments protect the body against radiation from sunlight called
    ultra violet rays
  43. Skin pigments are synthesized by special cells called
  44. When the body cannot produce the skin pigment melanin, the condition that results is called
  45. Heat is lost at the body surface in sweat during hte process of
  46. The skin conserves heat by reducing its secretions of sweat and by constricting its
    blood vessels
  47. Glands in the skin release water and fatty substances in the process of
  48. Ultraviolet radiation from the sun brings about the synthesis in the skin of vitamin
  49. Amoung the vitamins absorbed in the skin, when applied to the surface, are the fat soluble vitamins E, K, and
  50. The skin tissue absorbs certain steroid hormones released by the skin's
  51. Environmental stimuli are received by specialized skin
    sensory receptors
  52. The skin detects sensations such as pressure, touch, temperature, and
  53. The dermis is the inner, thicker layer of the skin, while the epidermis is the outer
    thinner layer
  54. The loose subcutaneous layer of fat rich tissue beneath the dermis is the
  55. The layers of cells within the epidermis are also referred to as
  56. The epidermis is composed of
    stratified spuamous epithelium
  57. The skin of thin epidermis has ____ layers.
  58. The skin of the thick epidermis has _____ layers.
  59. The innermost layer of epidermis lying on the basement membrane atop the dermis is the
    stratum basale or basal layer
  60. The cells synthesizing melanin are melanocytes which are found in the
    stratum basale or basal layer
  61. The predominant epidermal cells are the
  62. The protein keratin is produced by epidermal cells known as
  63. The epidermal cell layer lyin atop the stratum basale is the
    stratum spinosum or spiny layer
  64. Cells called epidermal dendritic cells provide the immune system functions and are located in the
    stratum basale or basal layer
  65. In thick skin, closely packed cells and dead keratinocytes are found within the layer of epidermis known as the
    stratum lucidum or clear layer
  66. At the body surface, the uppermost layer of hte epidermis is the
    stratum corneum or horney layer
  67. The cells in the uppermost layer of epidermis are rich in the waterproofing substance called
  68. The keratinocytes of hte stratum corneum are connected to one another by junctions called
  69. Most cells of the stratum corneum are ultimately derived from cells produced in the lower layer called the
    stratum basale or basal layer
  70. The cells of the epidermis receive their nourishment from blood vessels found in the
  71. The epidermis borders ridges from the dermis that help anchor the two layers together and are called
    dermal papillae
  72. The layer of the dermis containing fat cells, sweat glands, and blood vessels is the
    reticular layer
  73. The papillary layer of hte dermis consists of connective tissue that is loose or
  74. Most skin sensory receptors are found in the
  75. The two major structures of the hair fiber are the shaft and the
  76. Nerve endings are associated with each hair together with a sebaceous gland and a muscle known as
    arrector pili
  77. The nail is a protective plate consisting of the protein
  78. At its proximal end, the nail is covered partially by a piece of tissue called the
  79. The most numerous skin glands are the sweat glands, also known as
    sudoriferous glands
  80. What is the largtest organ in the body
  81. In the skin layers, the protein keratin
    forms a barrier to water soluble substances
  82. The skin conserves body heat by
    reducing secretions of sweat
  83. The pigment melanin
    protects the skin against ultraviolet rays from the sun
  84. One of the fx of the skin is to serve in the absorption of
    Vitamin D
  85. Heat is lost from the body by
    • evaporation
    • conduction
    • convection
  86. The superficial fascia is located
    beneath the dermis
  87. Intercellular junctions occurring within the stratum spinosum (spiney layer) are referred to as
  88. Two important cells found in teh stratum basale are
    • melanocytes
    • keratinocytes
  89. The reticular layer of the dermis contains
    • fat cells
    • blood vessels
    • sweat glands
  90. In the stratum corneum (horney layer), the cytoplasm of most cells has been replaced by
  91. All living cells of hte epidermis receive their nourishment from blood vessels located in the
  92. The dermis and epidermis are anchored to one another by bumps in ridges known as
    dermal papillae
  93. Sensory receptors are found in the
    • reticular layer
    • papillary layer
  94. Smooth muscle may be located in the ________ but not the _________.
    • dermis
    • epidermis
  95. Arrector pili muscles are associated with the
    hair follicles
  96. The lanugo is the extremely fine hair of
    the fetus
  97. Types of sweat glands
    • eccrine
    • apocrine
  98. The nail consists of
  99. The secretion of sebaceous glands enter the
    hair follicle
  100. Four main tissue types
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nervous
  101. Classification of epithelial tissues
    • number of cell layers
    • shape of cells
    • combine number and shape to get tissue name
  102. Number of cell layers are known as
    • simple-one cell layer thick
    • stratified-two or more layers
  103. The shape of the layers are known as
    • squamous-flatten
    • cuboidal-cube shaped
    • columnar-column cells
  104. Characteristics of connective tissue
    • variations in blood supply
    • many different cell types
    • extracellular matrix
  105. Types of connective tissue
    • collagen fibers-tough fibers w/ firm support
    • elastic fibers-stretchy fibers
    • reticular fibers-usually mixed with other fibers
  106. Connective tissue classification is determined by the type and amount of fibers present in the
  107. Classes of connective tissue include
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • dense connective tissue
    • loose connective tissue
    • blood
  108. The physical fx of the skin is
    • physical barrier contains keratin
    • fat cells cushion blows
    • pressure receptors alert nervous system to possible damage
  109. The bacterial fx of hte skin is
    • secretions are acid and inhibit bacteria growth
    • phagocytes ingest foreign substances and pathogens
  110. Ultraviolet fx of the skin is
    melanin produce by melanocytes offer protection from UV rays
  111. Temperature regulation of the skin is
    • heat loss-activates sweat glands and allows blood to flush into capillaries
    • heat retention-by not allowing the blood to flush into capillaries
  112. Excreation of the skin is when the skin
    excretes urea and uric acid through perspiration through sweat glands
  113. Vitamin D synthesis occus when
    cholesterol molicules in skin is converted to Vitamin D by sunlight
  114. What are the three major regions of the skin
    • epidermis
    • dermis
    • hypodermis
  115. Stratum basale or basal layer is
    • one cell layer thick
    • rapid cell division
    • most cells are keratinocytes
    • 25% of hte cells are melanocytes
  116. Stratum spinosum or spiny layer
    • several cell layers thick
    • cell division is less rapid
    • most cells are keratinocytes
  117. Stratum granulosum or granular layer
    • usually 3 to 5 cell layers thick
    • keratinization first takes place
    • most cells are keratinocytes
    • cell death begins
  118. Stratum lucidum or clear layer
    • very thin and transparent
    • present only in areas of hairless skin
    • most cells are keratinocytes
  119. Stratum Corneum or horney layer
    • broad layer 20-30 cells in thickness
    • makes up 3/4 thickness
    • cells are cornified keratinocytes
  120. The epidermal strata from bottom to top is
    • basal layer
    • spiny layer
    • granular layer
    • clear layer
    • horney layer
  121. The dermis is
    • composed of connective tissue
    • varies in thickness
    • contains nerve fibers, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, hair follicles, oil/sweat glands
  122. The papillary layer of the dermis
    • superficial 20% of dermis
    • composed of loose connective tissue
    • superficial surface has projections called dermal papillae
  123. Dermal papillae are
    projections that cause finger prints and wrinkles
  124. The reticular layer of the dermis
    • deep 80% of dermis
    • composed of dense connective tissue
    • contains nerve fibers, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, hair follicles, oil/sweat glands, deep pressure receptors
  125. What is the sx and fx of Keratinocytes
    • most abundant cell in the epidermis
    • arise from lowest levels of epidermis
    • produce the protein deratin
    • become filled with keratin and die
    • lose millions everyday
    • replaced every 35-45 days
  126. What is the sx and fx of melanocytes
    • arise from the lowest levels of epidermis
    • produce the pigment melanin
    • melanin is engulfed y keratinocytes
    • everyone has relatively the same number of melanocytes
  127. What is the sx and fx of merkel cells
    • occur in small numbers
    • locate at the junction of epidermis and dermis
    • form touch receptors
  128. What is the Pacinian corpuscle
    • located in the reticular layer
    • deep pressure receptor
    • phagocytes prevent bacteria from penetrating deep sx
  129. The Meissner's corpuscle
    • located in the papillary layer
    • pain and touch receptors
  130. Thre arrector pili muscle
    • small bands of smooth muscle
    • connected to each side of the hair follicle to the dermal layer
    • when muscle contracts the hair is pulled upright causing goosebumps
  131. Sebaceous glands
    • oil glands
    • all over the skin except plam of hands and soles of feet
    • ducts usually empty into hair follicle
    • produces sebum
  132. Sebum
    • is oily excretion
    • keeps skin soft and moist
    • has chemicals that kills bacteria
  133. Sudoriferous glands
    sweat glands
  134. Eccrine sweat glands
    • found all over the body
    • produce sweat
  135. Apocrine sweat glands
    • found in the axillary and genital areas
    • lorger than eccrine glands
    • empty into hair follicles
  136. Hair follicles are
    • flexible epithelial sx
    • a dermal and epidermal sheath that surrounds the hair root
  137. Nail are
    • scale like modifications of the epidermis
    • heavily keratinized
  138. Nail sx
    • free edge-tip
    • body-nail bed
    • root of nail-under the skin behind cuticle
    • eponychium-proximal nail fold that projects onto the nail bed
Card Set
Integumentary System
integumentary system for anatomy