List the two deuterostome phyla.
What is the water vascular system? What is the madreporite? What are the functions of the tube feet?
- WVS: series of water fiulled canals for locomotion and getting necessary nutrients(feeding)
- Madreporite: water comes in at madreporite and leads to 100s of tube feet
- tube feet: function primarily in locomotion and gas exchange
What is mutable connective tissue?
What are some advantages to possessing it?
- ability to reversibly vary the rigidity of their connective tissue( ex. hard to soft with sea cucumber)
- -good defense mechanism( used for protection)
- -used in feeding (sea star over a mussel)
What are the names of the 3 classes of echinoderms that we addressed and what are some examples of each?
- Asteroidea- sea stars
- Echinoidea- sea urchins (spiny form)
- Holothuroidea- sea cucmubers
- (plant animal)
What do sea urchins eat? How can this affect the kelp forest ecosystem?
- they can mow down an entire kelp forest which would change communities around that kelp forrest also allows the ocean to erode land.
Be able to describe why sea otters are a keystone species in the North Pacific ocean. Be able to interpret the graphs that describe this phenomenon (how changes in the diet of the killer whale revealed the importance of sea otters).
What bizarre defenses do sea cucumbers possess? Be able to describe each in general terms.
- 1. expel internal organs out of their anus (eviscerate)
- 2. expel cuverian tubules (sticky strings) made possible because of mutable connectgive tissue so predators won't eat them.
What are the 4 traits that define the phylum Chordata? What is the function of each trait?
- 1. Dorsal hollow nerve cord- bundle of nerve cells that runs dorsally length of body (spinal cord in humans)
- 2. pharyngeal gill slits- for respiration and often used for feeding.
- 3. postanal tail- usually muscular and for balance and locomotion
- 4. notochord- stiff flexible rod for skeletal structure
Make a diagram of an idealized chordate identifying each of these four traits.
What are the common names of urochordates?
sea squirts, turnicates
What are the functions of the pharyngeal gill slits in urochordates and cephalochordates?
- Used for feeding and gas exchange- Urochordates
- gas exchange
How does the morphology of larval and adult urochordates differ?
The notochord, nerve cord, and tail are all found in the larval stage of urochordates and not in the adult stage
- adult: pharynal gill slits
- Larva: all 4 traits
What is the common name of the most common cephalochordate?
See Fig. 34.22 (shown in slide 18) for clarification on what chordates are craniates and which are
vertebrates. Remember: all vertebrates are also craniates, but not all craniates are vertebrates.
In addition to the 4 chordate characteristics, what additional traits do all vertebrates possess?
- an elaborate head:
- - large brain
- - eyes and sensory organs
- - cranium or skull (protective box around brain)
What is an example of a vertebrate without a jaw? What do most of these animals feed on?
- Lamprey or hagfish
- lampreys are parasitic and feed on blood of fish (make wound on fish, ingest host's blood; dessimating population of lake trout)
What vertebrates possess jaws (Gnathostomata in slide 19)?
Everbody who is a vertebrate except the lancelates.
What is one hypothesis for the evolutionary origin of vertebrate jaws?
likely evolved from 2 pairs of gill arches (supportive skeletal structures that supported the gills)
What does Chondrichthyes mean? What is the function of the lateral line in "fishes" (including sharks)?
- Class Chondrichthyes means "cartilage fish"
- -sharks, rays
- lateral line- used to detect tiny virations in water
What type of fertilization do sharks have?
- Internal fertilization and diverse reproductive modes
- Oviparous, Viviparous, and ovoviviparous
What do the words oviparous, viviparous, and ovoviviparous mean? Be able to explain how these reproductive modes differ.
- Oviparous (egg birth) - eggs hatch outside the mother
- Viviparous ( live birth) - eggs develop internally, embryo, nourished by placenta
- Ovoviviparous (egg live birth) - eggs develop internally, nourished by yoke
Using Fig. 34.12, be able to explain why "fish" as a group are paraphyletic (see slides 30-33)
Paraphyletic because they exclude some descendants (mammals, amphibians,...) which came from a common ancestor.
In ray-finned, what is the function of the swim bladder? The gills? The fins?
- Swim bladder- controls buoyancy
- Gills- used only for respiration
- Fins- variety of fins; function in maneuverability
What is the most diverse group of "fish"?
Ray finned fish