1. mantra
    • Repeated scriptures, prayers, or phonetic formulas
    • Enhance one's karma
  2. Veda
    • Unmetered songs of devotion and ritual
    • Form the oldest books of the Hindu religion
  3. Hindustani
    North India
  4. Karnatic
    South India
  5. raga
    • Guidelines for a particular melodic improvisation that includes
    • Tuning
    • Scales
    • Functions of pitches
    • Melodic Motives
    • Ornamentation
    • Extramusical associations (time of day, emotions, etc.)
  6. Tala
    • Rhythmic element of Indian music
    • Cycles of beat groups that make up a meter
  7. bandish/gitam
    Precomposed songs or themes for a raga
  8. guru
    Individual music teacher
  9. gharana
    • Particular school of vocal or instrumental performance
    • Keep secrets of instruction and composition within a family of musicians
  10. sitar
    • Fretted plucked lute
    • Has drones and melody strings
  11. Ravi Shankar
    Indian sitar musician
  12. sarod
    • Fretless plucked lute
    • Melody and drone strings
    • Slick metal fingerboard and skin covered resonator
  13. Ali Akbar Khan
    Indian sarod musician
  14. sarangi
    Bowed fiddle of North India
  15. bansuri
    Transverse bamboo flute
  16. bin/vina
    • Plucked stick-zither with frets
    • Two large gourd resonators
  17. tambura
    • Plucked chordophone used for a drone
    • Lute-zither
  18. harmonium
    Hand-pumped reed organ with fixed tuning
  19. nagasvaram (shahnai)
    Loud, conical double reed aerophone
  20. tabla
    • Pair of drums used in North India
    • One is tuned to the tonic pitch, and the other has indefinite pitch
  21. Zakir Hussain
  22. mrdangam
    • Single drum with two heads
    • Used in South India
  23. sruti box
    A reed organ that substitutes for the tambura
  24. taraf
    Sympathetic strings on Indian chordophones
  25. sympathetic vibration
    Vibration when exposed to pitches played on other strings
  26. sruti
    Microtone in ancient tuning system
  27. svara
    Scale steps in a raga
  28. sa
    Tonic pitch of a raga
  29. semitone
    Interval between two adjacent notes in a twelve tone tuning system
  30. melakarta
    All possible seven-note scales that ragas could use
  31. komal
    Lowered tone (flat)
  32. tivra
    Raised tone (sharp)
  33. suddh
    Unaltered tone (natural)
  34. that
    • Thirty two possible scales in Hindustani music
    • Developed by Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande
  35. arohana/avarohana
    Representation of a raga including ascending/descending scale
  36. chalan
    Representation of a raga including characteristic motives while ascending/descending
  37. vadi
    Principal tone in a raga
  38. samvadi
    Secondary principle tone in a raga
  39. gamak/gamaka
    Characteristic ornamentation of a raga
  40. pakar
    Motives associated with ragas
  41. gat
    Metered section
  42. rasa
    A set of specific feelings that art can express
  43. ragamala
    Paintings that depict the mood of a raga
  44. quantitative accents
    Syllables accented by holding them twice as long
  45. vibhag/anga
    Groupings of beats in tala
  46. tala cycle
    Groupings of groupings of beats in tala
  47. sam
    First beat of the cycle
  48. khali
    Deemphasized beat of th cycle
  49. tali
    The first beats of vibhag that are neither sam or khali
  50. bols
    Syllables assigned to different drum strokes
  51. theka/sokattu
    A pattern of bols (syllables)
  52. alap
    Nonpulsatile section that begins a classical Indian performance
  53. sthai
    First half of the alap
  54. antara
    Second half of the alap
  55. jor
    Quasi-pulsatile section of the alap
  56. jhala
    Quasi-pulsatile section of the alap
  57. scat
    Syllables for vocal improvisation
  58. qawwali
    Devotional Islamic songs sung by Sufi mystics
  59. dhrupad
    • Primary musical form associated with Mughal period
    • Long vocal performance
  60. khyal
    • Prominent vocal genre in Hindustani concerts
    • More ornamented than dhrupad
  61. thumri
    • Light classical Hindustani vocal genre
    • Lyrical love songs
  62. kriti
    • Vocal form of South Indian music
    • Verse/refrain form
  63. pallavi
    Refrain of kriti music
  64. caranam
    Verse of kriti music
  65. anupallavi
    Contrasting section of kriti music
  66. ragam-tanam-pallavi
    • Long virtuosic vocal form in Southern India
    • Free improvisation with little text
  67. Ninnada Nela
    Kriti song by composer Tyagaraja
  68. cinna melm
    Folk ensemble of South India
  69. Baul music
    • Religious sect in Eastern India
    • Often a one man band
  70. khamak
    String drum of Baul music
  71. Filmi
    Songs originating in popular films
  72. Asha Bhosle
    Playback singer for Bollywood films
  73. Dil Cheez Kya Hai
    Song from film Umrao Jaan about a girl sold to become a courtesan
  74. minimalism
    A style in which composers experiment with a minimum of means
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