psychology chapter 10

  1. developmental psychology
    • the branch of psychology concerened with interaction between physical
    • and psychological processes and with stages of growth from conception
    • throught the entire life span.
  2. normative investigation
    research effort designed to describe what is a characteristic of a specific age or developmental age
  3. developmental age
    the chronological age at which most children show a particular level of phsycial or mental development
  4. longitudinal design
    a research design in which the same participants are observed repeatedly, sometimes over many years
  5. cross-sectional design
    a research method in which groups of participants of different chronological ages are observed and compared at a given time
  6. physical development
    the bodily changes, maturation, and growth that occur in an organist starting with conception and continuing accross the life span
  7. zygote
    the single cell that results when sperm fertilizes an egg
  8. germinal stage
    the first two weeks of prenatal development following conception
  9. embryonic stage
    the second stage of prenatal development, lasting from the thrird through eight weeks after conception
  10. fetal stage
    the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from the ninth week through birth of the child
  11. teratogen
    environmental factors such as diseases and drugs that cause structural abnormalities in a developing fetus
  12. maturation
    the continuing influence of heredity throughout development, the age related physical and behavioral changes characteristic of a species
  13. puberty
    the process through which sexual maturity is attained
  14. menarche
    the onset of mentstration
  15. cognitive development
    the development of processes of knowing, including imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem solving.
  16. scheme
    Piaget's term for a cognitive structure that develops as infants and young children learn to interpret the world and adapt to their environment
  17. assimilation
    according to piages, the process whereby new cognitive elemtns are fitted in with old elements or modified to fit more easily; this process works in tandem with accomodation
  18. accommodation
    according to piaget, the process of restructuring or modifying cognitive structures so that new information can fit into them more easily; this process works in tandem with assimilation
  19. object permanence
    the recognition that objects exist independently of an individuals action or awareness; an important cognitive acquisition of infancy
  20. egocentrism
    in cognitive development, the inability of a young child at the preoperational stage to take the perspective of another person
  21. centration
    preoperational children's tendency to focus their attention on only one aspect of a situation and disregard other relevant aspects
  22. foundational theory
    framework for initial understanding formulated by children to explain their experiences of the world
  23. internalization
    according to vygotsky, the process of through which children absorb knowledge from the social context
  24. wisdom
    expertise in the fundamental pragmatics of life
  25. phoneme
    minimal unit of speec in any given language that makes a meaningful difference in speech and production and reception; r and are two distinct phonemes in english but variations of one in japanese
  26. infant-directed speech
    a form of speech addressed to infants that includes slower speed, distinctive intonation, and structural simplifications
  27. child-directed speech
    a form of speech addressed to children that includes slower speed, distinctive intonationm, and structural simplifications
  28. language-making capacity
    the innate guidelines or operating principles that children bring to the tast of learning a language
  29. overregularization
    a grammatical error, usually appearing during early language development, in which rules of the language are appliedc too widely, resulting in incorrect linguistic forms.
  30. social development
    the ways in which individuals' social interactions and exectations change accross the life span
  31. psychosocial stage
    proposed by erik erikson, one of the successive developmental stages that focus on an individuals's orientation toward the self and others; these stages incorporate both the sexual and social aspects of a person's developmental and the social conflicts that arise from the interaction between the individual and the social environment
  32. socialization
    the lifelong process whereby an individual's behavioral patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes, and motives are shaped to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society
  33. temperament
    a child's biologically based level of emotional and behavioral response to environmental events
  34. attachment
    emotional relationshnip between a child and the regular caregiver
  35. imprinting
    a primitive form of learning in which some infant animals physically follow and form an attachment to the first moving object they see and/or hear
  36. parenting syle
    the manner in which parents rear their children; an authoritative parenting style, which balances demangdingness and responsiveness, is seena as the most effective
  37. contact comfort
    comfort derived from an infant's physical contact with the mother or caregiver
  38. intimacy
    the capacity to make a full commitment--sexual, emotional and moral to another person
  39. generativity
    a commitment beyond one's self and one's partner to family, work, society, and future generations; typically, a crucial state in development in one's 30s and 40s
  40. sex difference
    one of the biologically based characteristics that distinguish males from females
  41. gender
    a psychological phenomenon that refers to learned sex-related behavior and attitude of males and females
  42. gender identity
    one's sense of maleness or femaleness; usually includes awsareness and acceptance of one's biologial sex
  43. gender stereoptype
    belief about attributes and behaviors regarded as appropriate for males and females in a particular culture
  44. morality
    a system of beliefs and values that ensures that individuals will keep their obligations to others in society and will behave in ways that do not interfere with the rights and interests of others
  45. selective optimization with compensation
    a strategy for successful aging in which one makes the most gains while minimizing the impact of losses that accompany normal aging
Card Set
psychology chapter 10
psychology vocabulary chapter 10